Essential Questions: Why is data collected and analyzed?
How can information be gathered, recorded, and organized?
How do people use data to influence others?
How can predictions be made based on data?
How does the type of data influence the choice of display?
How does the way we display data influence our interpretation of it?
How does collecting data help us solve problems or make decisions in our world?
What aspects of a graph help people understand and interpret the data easily?
What kind of questions can and cannot be answered from a graph
Lesson Plan B.4: Line Plots
Lesson Seed B.4: M&E Data
Lesson Seed B.4: Measuring to the Nearest 1/8 Inch
Content Emphasis By Clusters in Grade 4
Progressions from Common Core State Standards in Mathematics
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Lesson seeds are ideas that can be used to build a lesson aligned to the CCSS. Lesson seeds are not meant to be all-inclusive, nor are they substitutes for instruction. When developing lessons from these seeds, teachers must consider the needs of all learners. It is also important to build checkpoints into the lessons where appropriate formative assessment will inform a teachers instructional pacing and delivery.
As students work with data in Grades K-5, they build foundations for their study of statistics and probability in Grades 6 and beyond. They also strengthen and apply what they are learning in arithmetic. First and second graders solve addition and subtraction problems in a data context using picture graphs and bar graphs (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. They solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. In addition to this study of categorical data, students in Grade 2 measure lengths to generate a set of measurement data in whole units. They then decide how to summarize the data set or display it visually. Since they are already familiar with categorical data and bar graphs, students might think it natural to summarize this data set in terms of categories. However, the different lengths measured do not constitute different categories, but rather different measured lengths…which is why this type of data is called ‘measurement data’ rather than ‘categorical data’. Both types of experiences are vital to the development of understanding data and being able to display it correctly.
In Grade 3, students begin to learn fraction concepts (3.NF). They understand fraction equivalence in simple cases, and they use visual fraction models to represent and order fractions. Grade 3 students also measure lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. They use their developing knowledge of fraction and number lines to extend their work from the previous grade by working with measurement data involving fractional measurement values. Also in Grade 3, students draw scaled picture graphs (also known as pictographs) and scaled bar graphs in which the symbol in the picture graph or the square in the bar graph could represent, for example, 5 pets. Again students can pose questions that can be answered about the graph by interpreting the data displayed.
In grade 4, students continue to make line plots to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit, which now includes halves, fourths, and eighths. They solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using the information present in the line plots, such as finding the difference between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.
At the completion of the unit on represent and interpret data, the student will understand that:
Focus Standards (Listed as Examples of Opportunities for In-Depth Focus in the PARCC Content Framework document):
Possible Student Outcomes:
The student will be able to:
Evidence of Student Learning:
The Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) has awarded the Dana Center a grant to develop the information for this component. This information will be provided at a later date. The Dana Center, located at the University of Texas in Austin, encourages high academic standards in mathematics by working in partnership with local, state, and national education entities. Educators at the Center collaborate with their partners to help school systems nurture students' intellectual passions. The Center advocates for every student leaving school prepared for success in postsecondary education and in the contemporary workplace.
Fluency Expectations and Examples of Culminating Standards:
4.NBT.B.4 Students fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.
Misinterpreting the data displayed in a line plot.
Interdisciplinary connections fall into a number of related categories:
Sample Assessment Items: The items included in this component will be aligned to the standards in the unit and will include:
Interventions/Enrichments/PD: (Standard-specific modules that focus on student interventions/enrichments and on professional development for teachers will be included later, as available from the vendor(s) producing the modules.)
Vocabulary/Terminology/Concepts: This section of the Unit Plan is divided into two parts. Part I contains vocabulary and terminology from standards that comprise the cluster, which is the focus of this unit plan. Part II contains vocabulary and terminology from standards outside of the focus cluster. These “outside standards” provide important instructional connections to the focus cluster.
Part I – Focus Cluster
line plot: a visual display of a distribution of data values where each data value is shown by a mark(symbol) above a number line. (Also referred to as a “dot plot.”)
Part II – Instructional Connections outside the Focus Cluster
Free Online Resources:
Math Related Literature: