State Standards - Science

Grade 6
Standard 4.0 Economics: Students will develop economic reasoning to understand the historical development and current status of economic principles, institutions, and processes needed to be effective citizens, consumers, and workers participating in local communities, the nation, and the world.
A. Scarcity and Economic Decision-making
1. Explain that people made choices because resources relative to economic wants to goods and services in the context of early world history
a. Identify opportunity cost of economic decisions made by individuals and groups such as the decision to engage in trade
2. Analyze how scarce economic resources were used to satisfy economic wants in early world history
a. Identify ways people have used resources to meet economic wants such as domesticating agriculture
b. Describe how available resources affected specialization and trade
3. Analyze how technological changes affected consumption and production in early world history
a. Give examples of how technology changed consumption and provided greater access to goods and services
b. Examine why technology has changed production such as the development of the printing press
4. Examine how specialization, interdependence and trade affected the production of goods and services in early world history
a. Analyze examples of regional specialization that resulted from economic resources, such as silk production, bronze casting and terraced farming
b. Describe the effects of agricultural surplus and job specialization on the emergence of early towns and cities in various parts of the world
c. Identify African and Eurasian trade routes to explain how surplus goods and regional specialization resulted in economic interdependence
B. Economic Systems and the Role of Government in the Economy
1. Describe the types of economic systems in early world societies
a. Describe how various early world societies answer the basic question of what, how, and for whom to produce
b. Describe examples of tradition in economies such as the economic roles of men and women in tribal societies
c. Describe examples of command in economies, such as the feudal system
2. Describe the transition from feudalism and the manor system to the development of early towns
a. Explain how the growth and management of towns, guilds, and the banking system were affected by technology and agriculture
b. Analyze how the guild system addressed changes in the economy, such as dictating price and production
3. Describe the importance of medium of exchange in early world history
a. Explain how societies used mediums of exchange to facilitate trade and help their economies grow

Note: Highlighting identifies assessment limits. All highlighted Indicators will be tested on the Grades 5 and 8 MSA. The highlighted Objectives under each highlighted Indicator identify the limit to which MSA items can be written. Although all content standards are tested on MSA, not all Indicators and Objectives are tested. Objectives that are not highlighted will not be tested on MSA, however are an integral part of Instruction.

MSDE has developed a toolkit for these standards which can be found online at:

January 2008