**Essential Questions: **

**Lesson Plans and Seeds**

Lesson Plans A3: Writing numbers from 0 to 20

Lesson Seeds A1: Last man standing

Lesson Seeds A1: Nearby teens game

Lesson Seeds A2: Pick a number

Lesson Seeds A2: Put them in order

**Download Seeds, Plans, and Resources (zip)**

**Content Emphasis By Clusters in Grade PK**

**Progressions from Common Core State Standards in Mathematics**

Lesson seeds are ideas that can be used to build a lesson aligned to the CCSS. Lesson seeds are not meant to be all-inclusive, nor are they substitutes for instruction. When developing lessons from these seeds, teachers must consider the needs of all learners. It is also important to build checkpoints into the lessons where appropriate formative assessment will inform a teachers instructional pacing and delivery..

### Unit Overview

This unit extends the work that was done in Prekindergarten with numbers up to 10. Students in Kindergarten are expected to rote count to 100 by ones and by tens. Emphasis in this unit is placed on the counting sequence. Students should also demonstrate the ability to count forward beginning from a given number writing the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1), which is a prerequisite for counting on. In addition, students in Kindergarten will be expected to write numbers from 0-20 and to represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20, with 0 representing a count of no objects. Students will progress from saying the counting words to counting out objects and comparing numbers. This unit builds the foundation for students’ ability to count to find how many, and to model addition and subtraction with small sets of objects. It is the expectation that this unit will precede K.CC.4-7. Students should be provided multiple opportunities to connect number words and numerals to the quantities they represent, using various physical models and representations, games, and hands-on activities. It is important to note that counting should not be taught in isolation and should be reinforced daily throughout the school year.

**Teacher Notes:**

- Review the Progressions for Grades K-5 Counting and Cardinality; K-5 Operations and Algebraic Thinking at
to see the development of the understanding of counting and number as stated by the Common Core Standards Writing Team, which is also the guiding information for the PARCC Assessment development.*http://commoncoretools.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/ccss_progression_cc_oa_k5_2011_05_302.pdf* - When implementing this unit, be sure to incorporate the Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions as the foundation for your instruction.
- Students should engage in well-chosen, purposeful, problem-based tasks. A good mathematics problem can be defined as any task or activity for which the students have no prescribed or memorized rules or methods, nor is there a perception by students that there is a specific correct solution method (Hiebert et al., 1997). A good mathematics problem will have multiple entry points and require students to make sense of the mathematics. It should also foster the development of efficient computations strategies as well as require justifications or explanations for answers and methods.
- Kindergartners typically know the 1-9 sequence and a bit beyond but often have difficulty identifying the counting patterns for decades (10, 20, 30) and transitions (for example, that 39 signals 40 next) (Baroody & Wilkins 1999).
- Reinforce oral counting, stable-order count, one-to-one correspondence, keeping track, and cardinality in day-to-day activities.
- Continue to develop number sense by reinforcing early number relationships. These early number relationships include but are not limited to anchors to 5 and 10, part-part-total, one more/two more/one less/two less, and spatial relationships. Students should see 5 as 4 and 1, 2 and 3, five ones, and so on.

**Enduring Understandings:**

- Numbers and counting are a part of our everyday life.
- Numbers can represent quantity, position, location, & relationships.
- Numbers can also represent or identify labels. This concept is all over young children’s everyday lives (size of their pants – size 5, age 5; 5 on the keypad of a cell phone).
- Numbers can be represented using objects, words, and symbols.
- Counting finds out the answer to “how many” in objects/sets.
- Zero is the least whole number and there is no greatest number on the number line.

**Focus Standards (***Listed as Examples of Opportunities for In-Depth Focus in the PARCC Content Framework documents for Grades 3-8*):

*Listed as Examples of Opportunities for In-Depth Focus in the PARCC Content Framework documents for Grades 3-8*):

**K.CC.A.1**Count to 100 by ones and by tens.**K.CC.A.2**Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).

**Possible Student Outcomes:**

The student will:

- Count to 100 by tens and ones.
- Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).
- Write numbers from 0 to 20.
- Represent a number of objects with a written number 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).
- Use concrete materials to model one-to-one correspondence when counting.

**Evidence of Student Learning: **

**Fluency Expectations and Examples of Culminating Standards:**

**K.OA.B.5**Fluently add and subtract within 5.

**Common Misconceptions:**

- Believing you do not have to count each object once and only once.
- You ALWAYS have to start at 1.
- Zero is not a number.
- Skipping objects or recounting objects when counting a set of objects.
- Patterns in early counting sequence apply to all numbers. For example, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, 1 teen, 2 teen, 3 teen, etc.

**Interdisciplinary Connections:**
*Interdisciplinary connections fall into a number of related categories:*

*Literacy standards within the Maryland Common Core State Curriculum*

*Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics standards*

*Instructional connection to mathematics that will be established by local school systems, and will reflect their specific grade-level coursework in other content areas, such as English Language Arts, reading, science, social studies, world languages, physical education, and fine arts, among others.*

**Sample Assessment Items: ***The items included in this component will be aligned to the standards in the unit and will include:*

*Items purchased from vendors*

*PARCC prototype items*

*PARCC public released items*

*Maryland Public release items*

*Formative Assessment*

Topic |
Standards Addressed |
Notes |

Assessing Reading of Numbers |
K.CC.A | In a one-to-one setting, a student is shown the numbers from 1–10, one number at a time, in random order. The teacher asks, “what number is this?" |

Assessing Sequencing Numbers |
K.CC.A | Individual or small groups of students put number cards in the correct order |

Finding the Numbers 0-5 or 5-10 |
K.CC.A | Student pairs play a game in which they match a number rolled on a number cube to a number card, say the number name aloud, and turn the card over. |

Five by Two |
K.CC.A | Student pairs play a game in which they put the numbers 1-10 in order in a 5 by 2 array. |

More and Less Handfuls |
K.CC.A K.CC.B K.CC.C |
Students work in pairs grabbing and comparing handfuls of manipulatives. They record their comparison on paper each time. |

Teen Go Fish |
K.CC.A | Student play ‘Go Fish’ matching pairs of teen numbers as they play. |

Assessing Counting Sequences Part 1 |
K.CC.A.1 | Assessment of counting skills for individual students |

Choral Counting |
K.CC.A.1 | Teacher uses a pointer and a large hundred chart to lead the class in choral counting. Eventually a student takes over the pointing as the students count. |

Counting Circles |
K.CC.A.1 | Students stand in circle and individually count around the circle. When the last number is said, all students clap and the student who said that number sits in the middle of the circle. This is repeated with the same or different sequences until all student are seated in the center of what was the circle. |

Counting by Tens |
K.CC.A.1 | Counting activity in which student clap as they count and become aware of the tens named in the counting process. This leads to counting by tens. |

Assessing Counting Sequences Part 2 |
K.CC.A.2 | Individual assessment in which the student names the number that comes after specific numbers named by the teacher. |

Number After Bingo 1-15 |
K.CC.A.2 | Students play a Bingo game in which they draw a card, name the number AFTER the number on the card, and then put a counter on the number named. |

Number Line Up |
K.CC.A.2 | Each student is given a number card. When the teacher says ‘Go’ the students line up in order from 1 to the largest number. Then each student says their number in order, beginning with 1, to check to see if they lined up correctly. |

Pick a Number, Counting On |
K.CC.A.2 | The teacher pick a random number within the known counting sequence and asks the class to count up ten from that number. |

Start-Stop Counting |
K.CC.A.2 | Students sit in a circle. The teacher begins a counting sequence as she walks around the outside of the circle. She stops and taps a student on the head. She sits in the students place and the student continues counting around the outside of the circle until the teacher signals her to tap a student and sit in their place. |

“One More” Concentration |
K.CC.A.2 | Students play concentration match two number which are one more and one less than each other (For example, 2 & 3 since 2 is one less than 3 and 3 is one more than 2.) |

Assessing Writing Numbers |
K.CC.A.3 | Students write the numbers said by the teacher in random order. |

Number Tic Tac Toe |
K.CC.A.3 | Students name and trace numbers on the game card as they play. |

Race to the Top |
K.CC.A.3 | Using a grid paper with the numbers 0 to 9 individually labeling each column at the bottom, students roll or spin a number and write it in the corresponding column on the grid paper. The continue play to see which number reaches the top of the grid paper first. |

Rainbow Number Line |
K.CC.A.3 | Students use colored crayons to trace the numbers 1 to 20 on sentence strips made by the teacher. They then use these as a reference at their desks. |

Dice Addition |
K.CC.A.3 K.OA.A.2 |
Students roll two dice, add the numbers, and trace the sum on a worksheet. Play continues until one of the numbers ‘wins’ by having its whole row traced. |

### Interventions/Enrichments/PD:

*(Standard-specific modules that focus on student interventions/enrichments and on professional development for teachers will be included later, as available from the vendor(s) producing the modules.)*

### Vocabulary:

*This section of the Unit Plan is divided into two parts. Part I contains vocabulary and terminology from standards that comprise the cluster, which is the focus of this unit plan. Part II contains vocabulary and terminology from standards outside of the focus cluster. These “outside standards” provide important instructional connections to the focus cluster.*

*Part I – Focus Cluster:*

** rote counting: ** reciting numbers in order from memory without aligning them to objects, pictures, etc.

** verbal counting: ** counting while aligning each number said to an object, picture, etc. in order to solve a problem.

** cardinality: **: is the understanding that when counting a set, the last number represents the total number of objects in the set.

Examples: This is a set of 3 stars

*Part II – Instructional Connections outside the Focus Cluster*

**the ability to understand that the quantity of a set does not change, no matter how the objects of the set are displayed or moved around.**

*conservation of number:*** subitizing : **the ability to recognize the total number of objects or shapes in a set without counting.

**Resources**

**Free Resources:**

__http://wps.ablongman.com/ab_vandewalle_math_6/0,12312,3547876-,00.html__Reproducible blackline masters__http://lrt.ednet.ns.ca/PD/BLM_Ess11/table_of_contents.htm__mathematics blackline masters__http://yourtherapysource.com/freestuff.html__Simple activities to encourage physical activity in the classroom__http://www.mathsolutions.com/index.cfm?page=wp9&crid=56__Free lesson plan ideas for different grade levels__https://www.digiblock.com/__Lesson plans for mathematics__http://www.nctm.org/__National Council of Teachers of Mathematics__www.k-5mathteachingresources.com__Extensive collection of free resources, math games, and hands-on math activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics__http://elementarymath.cmswiki.wikispaces.net/Standards+for+Mathematical+Practice__Common Core Mathematical Practices in Spanish__http://mathwire.com/__Mathematics games, activities, and resources for different grade levels__http://www.counton.org/__Mathematics games, activities, and resources for different grade levels

### Math Related Literature

- Rogers, Jacqueline.
__Kindergarten Count to 100.__.

Notes: This book focuses on counting to 100 and on fun activities in and out of the Kindergarten classroom. - Scarry, Richard.
__Richard Scarry’s Best Counting Book Ever.__.

Notes: Willy's Buuny’s father suggests that he practice counting all the things he sees, beginning with ONE BUNNY. Soon he finds more numbers everywhere. By the end of the day, Willy's gone all the way up to 100.

### References:

- ------. 2000.
*Principles and Standards for School Mathematics*. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. - Bamberger, H.J., Oberdorf, C., Schultz-Ferrell, K. (2010).
*Math Misconceptions: From Misunderstanding to Deep Understanding*. - Baroody, A.J., & Wilkins, J.L.M. 1999.
*The development of informal counting, number, and arithmetic skills and concepts. In Mathematics in the early years,*ed. J.V. Copley, 48-65. Reston, VA: NCTM; Washington, D.C.:NAEYC. - Copley, J. (2010).
*The Young Child and Mathematics*. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. - Burns, M. (2007 )
*About Teaching Mathematics: A K-8 Resource.*Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications. - Van de Walle, J. A., Lovin, J. H. (2006).
*Teaching Student-Centered mathematics, Grades K-3*. Boston, MASS: Pearson Education, Inc.