Does simply ending an injustice result in justice, or does achieving true justice require something more?
DAY 1 - SEED 1
DAY 2–3 - SEED 2
DAY 4–5 - SEED 3
DAY 6–8 - PLAN 1
DAY 9 - SEED 4
DAY 10 - SEED 5
DAY 11 - SEED 6
DAY 12–17 - SEED 7
DAY 18–20 - SEED 8
DAY 21–23 - SEED 9
DAY 24–25 - PLAN 2
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Lesson seeds are ideas that can be used to build a lesson aligned to the CCSS. Lesson seeds are not meant to be all-inclusive, nor are they substitutes for instruction. When developing lessons from these seeds,
teachers must consider the needs of all learners. It is also important to build checkpoints into the lessons where appropriate formative assessment will inform a teachers instructional pacing and delivery.
This lesson, which requires multiple class periods to complete, centers on the close reading of an excerpt of an 1873 speech by Susan B. Anthony. The teacher models close reading through a "Think Aloud" and then guides students through a shared close reading* of a portion of the text. Students then perform a close reading of the remainder of the excerpt and discuss their findings in large groups and cooperative, small-groups. Students organize their thoughts about the effectiveness of Anthony's argument in order to participate in a fishbowl discussion to speak for or against that effectiveness. Finally, students write a short explanatory piece explaining why Anthony's speech held audience appeal.
Each student needs a copy of the self-analysis checklist, the excerpt of Anthony's speech, the organizer for analyzing an argument, the rubrics for evaluating the fishbowl discussion and the explanatory writing piece, and his or her class journal.
Complete the self-analysis checklist to determine your strengths and weaknesses as a reader of argument.
Set personal goals for this lesson to improve identified weaknesses and revisit/revise these goals at strategic points throughout the lesson.
IMPORTANT NOTE: Consider the need for Accessible Instructional Materials (AIM) and/or for captioned/described video when selecting texts, novels, video and/or other media for this unit. See "Sources for Accessible Media" for suggestions on Maryland Learning Links: http://marylandlearninglinks.org.
IMPORTANT NOTE: The "Lesson Procedure" section of this plan is written to the student, an approach that may be unfamiliar to some teachers. Teachers should study the "Lesson Procedure" carefully so that their planning and preparation enables students to demonstrate the level of independence and mastery expected in the lesson.
Listen carefully as your teacher introduces the excerpt of a speech by Susan B. Anthony and explains the organizer you will be using to record evidence from your analysis of the excerpt.
Read the excerpt independently. Then listen carefully as your teacher reads the excerpt aloud.
Listen carefully as your teacher uses a "Think Aloud" to model a close reading of the title and paragraph 1. Highlight key words and concepts per your teacher's model.
Respond to guiding questions to identify the issue and the underlying beliefs evident at the beginning of the excerpt.
(Q1) What does the title of Anthony's speech imply about both the direction her argument will take and the underlying assumptions or beliefs she holds?
TEXT EVIDENCE: Anthony carefully links four key words in her title to which she will return throughout her remarks: crime, citizen, United States, and vote. By avoiding gender and focusing instead on citizenship, Anthony frames her argument with a universal appeal that sets logic above emotion. Her question is almost rhetorical and hints at her fundamental assumption or belief that she is not a criminal but rather a citizen who merely exercised a citizen's rights.
Another of Anthony's assumptions seems to be that her audience will answer her question the same way she has answered it.
(Q2) In the first sentence, what does Anthony say about the foundation of our form of government? What is significant about the words "natural right"?
TEXT EVIDENCE: Anthony connects our "democratic-republican" government to the right of each individual to vote and, therefore, have a voice in the making and enforcement of our laws. The words "natural right" are significant because they establish the notion that this right is inherent in each individual and not something that can be given or taken away.
(Q3) In the remainder of paragraph 1, how does Anthony describe the role of government in the face of the idea of natural rights? Paraphrase the remainder of paragraph 1.
TEXT EVIDENCE: Anthony says that we believe that a government cannot grant a right that its citizens already naturally possess. Instead, the role of government is to secure or protect that right for its citizens. Before there were governments, individuals had the right to protect themselves, their freedom, and their property. When individuals enter into a free government, they are not agreeing to give up their rights. Rather, they pledge to abide by a system in which the rights of all citizens are protected in a civilized, nonviolent way.
Paraphrase in your class journal the claims Anthony makes in paragraph 1and the evidence she uses to support those claims. Share journal entries with a peer and revise based on peer feedback.
Read paragraph 2 independently. Then listen as your teacher reads paragraph 2 aloud.
Respond to a guiding question to identify the purpose and to paraphrase in your journal Anthony's remarks in paragraph 2.
(Q4) What is Anthony's purpose in paragraph 2? Paraphrase her remarks in paragraph 2.
TEXT EVIDENCE: Anthony's purpose in paragraph 2 is to advance the claim she makes in paragraph 1. Having argued that governments cannot give rights that individuals naturally possess, she first paraphrases federal, state, and territorial documents and then quotes from our founding documents to support the notion that "unalienable rights" come from the creator (i.e., are natural) and that the role of government is to "secure" or protect those rights. The phrase "deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed" harkens back to the first sentence in which she refers to an individual "voice and a vote." (Students should take special note of the phrase "consent of the governed" because it will take on resonance as Anthony continues to develop her argument.)
Following your teacher's model for taking notes, begin to add information to the organizer, focusing at this point only on claims and evidence.
Read paragraphs 3 and 4 independently. Then listen as your teacher reads paragraphs 3 and 4 aloud.
Participate in a group analysis of paragraphs 3 and 4 facilitated by your teacher. Respond to guiding questions and record claims and evidence on your organizer as appropriate. Highlight key words and concepts per your teacher's model.
(Q5) What is important about Anthony's reference to the "Quaker preacher"?
TEXT EVIDENCE: By alluding to a position held by a religious figure, Anthony acknowledges and attempts to respond to a possible counterclaim. (NOTE: The fact that "the Quaker preacher" is not named suggests that Anthony's audience probably understood the allusion. The omission of the preacher's name provides a good opportunity for teachers to demonstrate that having absolutely all of the details is not always necessary to making meaning and drawing conclusions. The point here is that a religious figure, someone whose judgment should be trustworthy, has already interpreted the words "all men" to be inclusive of women.)
(Q6) Explain how Anthony uses the phrase "consent of the governed" as evidence to support her claim?
TEXT EVIDENCE: Quoting and applying the Declaration of Independence continues to add weight to Anthony's argument. Simply put, the Declaration asserts that our government functions only because of the consent of the people who have the right to alter the government if it behaves in a manner counter to the good of its people. In our country, altering the government involves the vote. Anthony's argument here is clear: How can any group from whom the vote is withheld ever be able to exercise its right to effect change in the government except by force, which she has already established as antithetical to a civilized society.
Paraphrase in your journal the claims and evidence Anthony offers in paragraphs 3 and 4. Share your paraphrase with a partner and revise per your partner's feedback.
Reread your paraphrases of paragraphs 1 through 4 to confirm your understanding and clarify any questions. Share remaining questions with the class for further discussion as needed.
In a class discussion, share "clicks" and "clunks" so far in your reading of the excerpt.
Revisit your personal goals for this lesson on reading argument and revise as needed based on your comfort level with the content and process of the lesson.
Read paragraphs 5 through 8 independently.
With a partner, respond to the guiding question and record claims, counterclaims, and evidence from paragraphs 5 through 8 on the organizer. Highlight key words and concepts per your teacher's model as necessary.
(Q7) Explain how Anthony uses the preamble to the Constitution and Article 4 of the Articles of Confederation to strengthen and extend her argument in these paragraphs.
TEXT EVIDENCE: Anthony continues to look to our founding documents for evidence that supports her claim that she is not a criminal but a citizen who has simply exercised her rights. In the famous words from preamble to the Constitution, she finds the inclusiveness that she alludes to earlier: 'We, the people…" As individuals who make up "the people," women, she argues, were there when the government was started. They were always intended to benefit from and, her argument follows, to have a voice in the government. She highlights the phrase "secure the blessings of liberty" in order to underscore her earlier point about natural rights. In this case, the government is not giving the blessings of liberty; instead, the government is securing those blessings for its citizens. As she rounds out her analysis of the preamble, she points out the hypocrisy inherent in a system that talks about the blessings of liberty but then denies them the right to have a say about the very institution charged with securing those blessings. In paragraph 7, she incorporates the words "free inhabitants of each of the states…shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of the free citizens of the several states." Her conclusion is that the founding fathers recognized the need for equal rights for all people if we hoped to create a more perfect union for our citizens.
Participate in a guided class discussion to revisit the issue and the underlying beliefs and share the information you added to your organizer.
In your journal, comment on the approach Anthony takes in her argument and the effectiveness of that approach at this point in the excerpt.
Share your thoughts about Anthony's approach with a partner and record those thoughts on an exit slip for your teacher.
Listen as your teacher reviews the previous work by paraphrasing paragraphs 1 through 8 of the excerpt. Ask clarifying questions as needed.
Read the remaining paragraphs of the excerpt independently. Reread these paragraphs aloud with a partner as necessary.
In your cooperative group, analyze and discuss the portion of the excerpt assigned by your teacher, i.e., paragraphs 17, 18, 19, and 20; paragraphs 26 and 29; paragraphs 33, 34, 35, 42, and 88; paragraphs 89, 90, 91, and 92. Record your findings on the organizer and prepare to share these findings.
(Q8) What evidence does Anthony cite from the constitution of New York that supports her claim? Paraphrase her reasoning in addressing a possible counterclaim in paragraph 20.
TEXT EVIDENCE: Anthony moves from citing federal documents to citing state documents. Since her "crime" was committed in New York, she looks to the documents of her state for evidence to support her argument. Essentially, she highlights a seeming contradiction in the state constitution. On one hand, the document calls for all citizens to have the same rights and privileges (with the exception of those who have committed a specific type of crime), including the right to vote ("No member of this state shall be disfranchised…"). On the other hand, the first article of the state constitution cites only males over the age of 21. On one level this statement could be used by those who counter her contention that she has committed no crime. To address this possible counterclaim, Anthony points to the words "the law of the land." Her argument is that the omission of the word "female" in the New York document is irrelevant because the Constitution of the United States, the "supreme law of the land," makes no reference to denying women the right to vote. And, since voting has already been established as a "natural right," individual states can do nothing to prevent women from exercising that right.
Paragraphs 26 and 29
(Q9) In paragraph 26, what does Anthony imply about the legality of denying women the right to vote? Paraphrase her argument in this paragraph and connect that argument to her larger claim.
TEXT EVIDENCE: Anthony posits that denying women the right to vote is illegal because that right was in place from the time our nation began. Denying it now is, therefore, after the fact (ex post facto) and, in effect, illegal because it denies to half of the population the blessings to which they are entitled. Furthermore, it calls into question the notion of "the consent of the governed," since half of the population has given no consent to anything. Finally, she equates the denial of the vote to women to their living under a monarchy where subjects have no power or voice in their government.
(Q10) Explain the dilemma that Anthony explores in paragraph 28? What is her purpose in pointing out this dilemma?
TEXT EVIDENCE: In this paragraph, Anthony returns to the problem of the use of masculine pronouns in the various constitutions. She acknowledges that some would use this fact as proof that women were excluded from the provisions of those documents. She debunks this counterclaim by pointing out that women are taxed by the government and subject to punishment for disobeying the laws of the government, yet they have no voice in that government.
(Q11) What is the purpose of the anecdote about the Pixley Sisters in paragraph 29? Explain how this anecdote connects to the dilemma described in paragraph 28.
TEXT EVIDENCE: Anthony is highlighting the hypocrisy inherent in a system that takes a portion of the profits (taxes) earned by three orphan girls yet would deny those same girls a voice in the very government that seizes those profits. This example is especially poignant since these girls seem to have worked hard to pull themselves out of poverty and to give themselves a better life. She extends the idea to include widows who live on almost nothing but are required to pay taxes in any case. She ends this paragraph with a call to action on the part of all women to refuse to pay taxes unless their right to vote is recognized.
Paragraphs 33, 34, 35, 42
(Q12) Explain the purpose of the quotations in paragraph 33 through 35. How do these quotations extend an idea established in the previous section?
TEXT EVIDENCE: Anthony uses these quotations to extend her argument by introducing the idea of personhood. Clearly, the legal language in these quotations establishes legal responsibilities/expectations for all persons; therefore, as Anthony asks, "The only question left to be settled here is, are women persons?" Since arguing that a woman is not a person is impossible, Anthony concludes that no state can make or enforce any law that denies a woman's/person's rights or protections. These quotations connect to Anthony's previous point about paying taxes. How is it that in some areas women are full citizens, but in one critical area, they are not?
(Q13) Why does Anthony choose to quote from a letter she received from Benjamin F. Butler? Paraphrase the quotation from Butler's letter to Anthony.
TEXT EVIDENCE: Anthony quotes from Butler's letter because it adds credibility to her argument. Butler is a representative in the government that is denying a fundamental right. Butler says that he doubts anyone in the Congress would argue against the right of women to vote. His stance is that lack of enforcement is the problem, a point that President Grant seems to support as he praises additional money to prevent "lawless men" from being allowed to deprive fellow citizens of their rights. Grant says that the majority of people throughout the country support the rights of all citizens and that "all good citizens" should oppose any interference with those rights.
Paragraphs 89, 90, 91, and 92
(Q14) How does the direction of Anthony's argument change beginning with paragraph 89? How are these paragraphs different from the rest of the excerpt? Paraphrase the appeals she makes in the closing paragraphs.
TEXT EVIDENCE: Anthony seems to feel that she had made her case, so she decides not to appeal to the legislature or to Congress. Instead, her appeals become more personal calls to action. She appeals to women to begin to go the polls on election days and vote. She appeals to election inspectors to receive the votes of women and not to turn them away. She calls for the arrest of election inspectors who turn away women voters at the same time that election inspectors who do permit women to vote are left alone. She asks the courts to rule on the side of liberty and equal rights for all and to remember the relationship between the Constitution and human rights. She asks juries not to convict women for voting or election inspectors who allow them to vote. Finally, she vows to fight on, peaceably but persistently until all citizens are "recognized as equals before the law."
Per your teacher's instructions, form Jigsaw groups to share your findings. Assume the role of expert and "teach" your Jigsaw group about that segment. Listen and ask clarifying questions as the other experts discuss their sections. Record claims, counterclaims, and evidence for these sections of the excerpt on the organizer.
Share findings and respond to guiding questions in a large group discussion of these three sections. Through a guided discussion, draw conclusions about the claims, counterclaims, and evidence in Anthony's argument. Record these conclusions on the organizer.
Listen as your teacher reviews the claims, counterclaims, evidence in the excerpt.
Read paragraphs 6 and 26 independently.
Respond to guiding questions about the language choices Anthony makes in these paragraphs. Record this information on the graphic organizer.
(Q15) What is the effect of the repetition and parallelism used in paragraph 6?
TEXT EVIDENCE: Anthony repeats the word "we" to emphasize the idea of equality. All citizens were included in the "we" when the Union was formed, and all citizens should be included in the Union now. The parallelism in the first sentence provides a point/counterpoint that clarifies and strengthens Anthony's argument.
(Q16) What tone does Anthony create in these paragraphs? What deliberate language choices contribute to that tone?
TEXT EVIDENCE: Anthony's tone is indignant and combative, yet it is grounded in logic and reasoning. In paragraph 6, she singles out "white male citizens" as the privileged group benefiting from the "blessings of liberty." She uses the phrase "downright mockery" when talking about the fact that women are denied the only means of "securing" those blessings of liberty. In paragraph 26, she uses the words "an odious aristocracy—a hateful oligarchy of sex!" to describe the government. To an American audience, the word "aristocracy" would have had particular resonance because of our overthrow of a British aristocracy. In addition, she uses the words "monarchial," "subjects," and "powerless," "superiors," all of which have negative connotations that would resonate with an American audience. Her language is purposeful and direct, and she always links that language back to her fundamental claim.
Read paragraphs 89, 90, and 91, and 92 independently. With a partner, analyze these paragraphs for their use of language and record the information on the organizer. Draw conclusions about the effectiveness of Anthony's language, tone, and style in the excerpt.
(Q17) Explain how Anthony uses repetition, parallelism, and language that would resonate with her audience in these paragraphs? Record your notes on the organizer.
TEXT EVIDENCE: Each sentence but the first contains a "we" construction: "We no longer petition," "We appeal," "We appeal," "We ask," "We ask," and "we propose." The progression of these phrases moves from establishing the shift in the suffragettes' strategy to making clear the conscious choice they have made to fight on. Making no progress with the legislature, they are now appealing directly to the people. The words "appeal" and "ask" are noteworthy in their almost humble tone. Anthony is not demanding, stipulating, or commanding; rather, she is appealing and asking, words that invite people to join her cause rather than try to force them to do so. The repetition of these "we" constructions ties ideas that begin with the women themselves, then move to the inspectors, the commissioners and the marshals, the courts, and finally the juries. The juxtaposition of "fight" and "peaceably" acknowledges the difficulty of the task but also the plan for accomplishing that task. Both words fit the self-portrait Anthony has painted in the excerpt. Finally, the repetition of words and the parallelism in syntax in these sentences highlight the equal importance of all aspects of the "battle" Anthony describes. In paragraph 90, especially, the parallel structure in the concluding sentence underscores Anthony's belief that the struggle to secure votes for women is a simple question of constitutionality. There can be no middle ground.
Share your analysis and conclusions in a class discussion.
Revisit your personal goals for this lesson on reading argument and revise as needed based on your comfort level with the content and process of the lesson. Submit your revised goals to your teacher.
In your journal, describe how Anthony organizes her argument. Then share your ideas with a partner or in a small group.
Q18) Using the notes you have taken on your organizer as well as the excerpt itself, describe how Anthony organizes her argument.
TEXT EVIDENCE: The organization of Anthony's argument is, at base level, a Q& A. Her title poses the question (and implies the answer); the text cites and examines evidence that answers the question and develops her argument, ending with an appeal for support and a promise to continue the struggle.
Participate in a class discussion of the organization of Anthony's argument, recording notes on the organizer.
In your small group, gather evidence on the effectiveness and the ineffectiveness of Anthony's argument.
Organize and reflect on this evidence to prepare for a fishbowl discussion about the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of Anthony's argument in this excerpt. Collaborate with your fishbowl group as directed by your teacher to prepare for the discussion.
Come to consensus as a class on a rubric your teacher will use to evaluate the discussion. Ask clarifying questions as needed.
Participate in a fishbowl discussion to argue the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of Anthony's argument per your teacher's instructions. Following the discussion, comment in your journal on the effect of the discussion on your opinion of the excerpt. Did you change your mind based on anything you heard, or did what you hear confirm your original ideas?
Respond to the following prompt:
On the speaking tour prior to her trial, Susan B. Anthony drew large and enthusiastic crowds. Why would an American audience turn out in large, enthusiastic crowds to hear Anthony's speech? How does Anthony attempt to convince her audience of the logic of her argument? In a brief essay, explain your ideas about the answers to these questions. Be sure that your essay is well organized, uses evidence from the excerpt to support your ideas, and applies the conventions of standard English.**
*For an example of a close reading script as well, a way of presenting the text to students, rubrics, and other materials, teachers should read the "Directions and Explanations" document attached to this lesson.
**Lesson Seed #9 fleshes out a separate writing lesson for this assignment.
In your class journal, reflect on the connections between the excerpt of Anthony's speech and the essential question for this unit. Share your ideas as part of a class discussion, exploring how this text deepens your understanding of the essential question.
Revisit your personal goals as a reader of argument. Evaluate your performance and share your evaluation with your teacher. Set new goals for yourself as a reader of argument.
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