School Improvement in Maryland

Standard 1.0 Political Science

Topic B. Individual and Group Participation in the Political System

Indicator 2. Defend the importance of civic participation as a citizen of the United States

Objective b. Analyze the concept of citizenship and explain how the concept has changed from colonial times through Reconstruction

Selected Response Item

2010 NAEP U.S. History Item:

The town meetings of the New England colonies were gatherings where

  1. citizens decided issues of public importance
  2. all the men voted for delegates to the legislature
  3. men and women met for social events
  4. men and women met for religious worship

Correct Answer:

Extended Constructed Response (ECR) Item

Have the students respond to the following extended constructed response prompt:

Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis once observed that “the only title in our democracy superior to that of president is the title citizen.” Yet the meaning of citizenship has evolved in the United States since colonial times.

Describe how the concept of citizenship changed in the United States between colonial times and the Reconstruction. In your response, be sure to address changes to Americans’ ideas about their own citizenship, changes in which government institutions have the authority to define citizenship, and the expansion of the United States’ pool of citizens that took place between 1763 and 1877.


View Scoring Information

Resources for Objective 1.B.2.b:
Clarifications | Lesson Seeds | SAMPLE ASSESSMENTS | Resource Links