School Improvement in Maryland

Reading Grade K State Curriculum

Document Date:
11/15/07
K All Content Areas with WSS Alignment (Acrobat 381k)  
K Fall Exemplars (Acrobat 383k)  
K Spring Exemplars (Acrobat 374k)  
View Glossary
The Pencil icon represents key indicators of the MMSR Kindergarten Assessment.

Standard 1.0 General Reading Processes


For more Kindergarten assessment information view the Fall Exemplars and Spring Exemplars .

Topic

A. Phonemic Awareness

Indicator

  • 1. Discriminate sounds and words
  • AssessedWSS II A3 Demonstrates beginning phonemic awareness.

Objectives

  1. Identify whether isolated sounds are same or different
  2. Identify initial and final sounds in a word
  3. Categorize words as same or different by initial or final sounds

Indicator

  • AssessedWSS II A3 Demonstrates beginning phonemic awareness.

Objectives

  1. Repeat and produce rhyming words
  2. Identify and repeat sentences that use alliteration

Indicator

  • 3. Blend sounds and syllables to form words
  • AssessedWSS II A3 Demonstrates beginning phonemic awareness.

Objectives

  1. Orally blend syllables into a whole word, such as fun-ny=funny
  2. Orally blend onset and rimes (word families) into a whole word, such as b-at=bat
  3. Orally blend 2-3 phonemes into one syllable words, such as m-e=me; f-u-n=fun

Indicator

  • 4. Segment and manipulate sounds in spoken words and sentences
  • AssessedWSS II A3 Demonstrates beginning phonemic awareness.

Objectives

  1. Clap words in a sentence
  2. Clap syllables in a word
  3. Say syllables
  4. Identify the initial sound in a word
  5. Segment individual sounds in words
  6. Substitute initial sounds in words to form new words

Topic

B. Phonics

Indicator

  • 1. Identify letters and corresponding sounds
  • WSS II C3 Knows letters and how they form words.

Objectives

  1. Identify in isolation all upper and lower case letters of the alphabet
  2. Identify letters matched to sounds
  3. Generate the sounds associated with individual letters and letter patterns, such as s-, st-, -at, -ack, -ed

Indicator

  • 2. Decode words in grade-level texts

Objectives

  1. Identify similarities and differences in letters and words
  2. Blend letter sounds in one-syllable words (CVC)
  3. Use onset and rime (word families) to decode one-syllable words

Topic

C. Fluency *

Indicator

  • 1. Engage in imitative reading at an appropriate rate

Objectives

  1. Listen to models of fluent reading
  2. Recite nursery rhymes, poems, and finger plays with expression

Indicator

  • 2. Read orally from familiar texts at an appropriate rate

Objectives

  1. Read familiar text with accuracy and expression
  2. Use knowledge of end punctuation to signal expression in reading
  3. Recognize some words by sight, such as student's first and last name, a, the, my, you, is, are

Topic

D. Vocabulary

Indicator

  • 1. Develop and apply vocabulary through exposure to a variety of texts
  • WSS II B2 Uses expanded vocabulary and language for a variety of purposes.

Objectives

  1. Acquire new vocabulary through listening to and reading a variety of texts on a daily basis
  2. Discuss words and word meanings daily as they are encountered in texts, instruction, and conversation
  3. Ask questions to clarify meaning about objects and words related to topics discussed
  4. Listen to and identify the meaning of new vocabulary in multiple contexts
  5. Listen to and identify the meaning of content-specific vocabulary
  6. Read signs, labels, and environmental print
  7. Collect and manipulate favorite words

Indicator

  • 2. Develop a conceptual understanding of new words

Objectives

  1. Use words to describe location, size, color, and shape
  2. Name pictures of common concepts, such as sleeping, running, walking
  3. Use names and labels of basic concepts, such as stop, go, boys, girls, in, out, poison
  4. Identify and sort pictures of common words into basic categories, such as colors, numbers, seasons

Indicator

  • 3. Understand, acquire, and use new vocabulary
  • WSS II B2 Uses expanded vocabulary and language for a variety of purposes.

Objectives

  1. Use text and illustrations to identify meaning of unknown words
  2. Use newly learned vocabulary on multiple occasions to reinforce meaning
  3. Use word structure to determine meaning of words
  4. Use resources to determine meaning of unknown words

Topic

E. General Reading Comprehension

Indicator

  • 1. Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of print to determine how print is organized and read
  • AssessedWSS II C2 Shows some understanding of concepts about print.

Objectives

  1. Understand that speech can be written and read
  2. Read a minimum of 15 books, both literary and informational
  3. Identify title, cover page, front and back of book, table of contents, page numbers, and describe what information is presented on the title and cover pages
  4. Track print from left to right and top to bottom
  5. Make return sweep to next line of text
  6. Match oral words to printed words
  7. Differentiate numerals, letters and words
  8. Recognize that printed words are separated by spaces
  9. Recognize that letters build words and words build sentences

Indicator

  • 2. Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
  • WSS II C1 Shows interest in and knowledge about books and reading.

Objectives

  1. Make connections to the text using illustrations, photographs, and prior knowledge
  2. Make predictions by examining the title, cover, illustrations/photographs/text, and familiar author or topic
  3. Ask questions about the text by examining the title, cover, illustrations, photographs, text
  4. Set a purpose for reading

Indicator

  • 3. Use strategies to make meaning from text (during reading)
  • AssessedWSS II C4 Comprehends and responds to fiction and non-fiction text.

Objectives

  1. Use illustrations to construct meaning from text
  2. Make, confirm, or adjust predictions
  3. Make comments and ask relevant questions
  4. Reread sentences when meaning is not clear
  5. Connect events, characters, and actions in stories to specific life experiences

Indicator

  • 4. Demonstrate understanding of text (after reading)
  • AssessedWSS II C4 Comprehends and responds to fiction and non-fiction text.

Objectives

  1. Recall and discuss information from text
  2. Respond to questions (who, what, and where) and verify answers using illustrations/text
  3. Respond to text by drawing, speaking, dramatizing, or writing
  4. Compare information in text with prior knowledge
  5. Validate/determine the purpose for reading
  6. Retell a story using text as support


Standard 2.0 Comprehension of Informational Text

Students will read, comprehend, interpret, analyze, and evaluate informational text.
For more Kindergarten assessment information view the Fall Exemplars and Spring Exemplars .

Topic

A. Comprehension of Informational Text

Indicator

  • AssessedWSS II C4 Comprehends and responds to fiction and non-fiction text.

Objectives

  1. Listen to nonfiction materials
  2. Listen to and use functional documents by following simple oral or rebus directions
  3. Listen to and use personal interest materials, such as books and magazines

Indicator

Objectives

  1. Identify print features
  2. Identify graphic aids
  3. Use informational aids
  4. Identify organizational aids

Indicator

  • 3. Develop knowledge of organizational structure of informational text to understand what is read

Objectives

  1. Recognize sequential order
  2. Recognize similarities and differences
  3. Recognize description

Indicator

Objectives

  1. State the text's purpose
  2. Identify the main idea/text's message
  3. Retell important facts from a text
  4. Identify how someone might use the text

Indicator

Objectives

  1. State whether the text fulfills the reading purpose
  2. Tell what the author could have done to make the text easier to understand
  3. Tell whether the author's ideas are clear


Standard 3.0 Comprehension of Literary Text

Students will read, comprehend, interpret, analyze, and evaluate literary texts.
For more Kindergarten assessment information view the Fall Exemplars and Spring Exemplars .

Topic

A. Comprehension of Literary Text

Indicator

  • 1. Develop comprehension skills by listening to and reading a variety of self-selected and assigned literary texts
  • AssessedWSS II C4 Comprehends and responds to fiction and non-fiction text.

Objectives

  1. Listen to and discuss a variety of literary texts representing diverse cultures, perspectives, and ethnicities
  2. Listen to and discuss a variety of different types of fictional literary text, such as stories, poems, nursery rhymes, realistic fiction, fairy tales, and fantasy

Indicator

  • 2. Use text features to facilitate understanding of literary texts

Objectives

  1. Identify and explain how the title contributes to meaning
  2. Identify and explain how text features, such as illustrations, punctuation, and print features, contribute to meaning

Indicator

  • 3. Use elements of narrative texts to facilitate understanding

Objectives

  1. Identify the beginning, middle, and end of a story, including the problem, and solution
  2. Identify the characters, sequence of events, and setting of a story

Indicator

  • 4. Use elements of poetry to facilitate understanding

Objectives

  1. Identify rhyme, rhythm, and repetition in poems read to them
  2. Retell the events of the poem

Indicator

  • 5. Use elements of drama to facilitate understanding

Objective

  1. Identify the characters, dialogue, and scenery of a play read to them

Indicator

  • 6. Determine important ideas and messages in literary texts

Objectives

  1. Retell the story by sequencing the main events
  2. Identify a personal connection to the text

Indicator

  • 7. Identify and describe the author's use of language

Objective

  1. Identify descriptive words in text read to them


Standard 4.0 Writing

Students will compose in a variety of modes by developing content, employing specific forms, and selecting language appropriate for a particular audience and purpose.
For more Kindergarten assessment information view the Fall Exemplars and Spring Exemplars .

Topic

A. Writing

Indicator

  • 1. Compose texts using the prewriting and drafting strategies of effective writers and speakers
  • WSS II D1 Represents stories through pictures, dictation, and play.
  • AssessedWSS II D2 Uses letter-like shapes, symbols, letters, and words to convey meaning.

Objectives

  1. Generate ideas and topics for writing
  2. Dictate or write words, phrases, or sentences related to ideas or illustrations

Indicator

  • 2. Compose oral, written, and visual presentations that express personal ideas and inform
  • WSS II D3 Understands purposes for writing.

Objectives

  1. Write to express personal ideas using drawings, symbols, letters, or words
  2. Contribute to a shared writing experience or topic of interest
  3. Use sensory details to expand ideas
  4. Dictate, draw, or write to inform
  5. Dictate, draw, or write a response to text, such as response logs and journals

Indicator

  • 3. Compose texts using the revising and editing strategies of effective writers and speakers

Objective

  1. Prepare writing for display by revising and editing using rules, such as capital letters and periods

Indicator

  • 4. Identify how language choices in writing and speaking affect thoughts and feelings

Objectives

  1. Identify and use words to communicate feelings
  2. Acquire and use new vocabulary

Indicator

Objective

  1. Use descriptive words and other details to expand and improve student's own writing

Indicator

  • 6. Use word lists as a source of information in writing

Objective



Standard 5.0 Controlling Language

Students will control language by applying the conventions of Standard English in speaking and writing.**
For more Kindergarten assessment information view the Fall Exemplars and Spring Exemplars .

Topic

A. Grammar

Indicator

  • 1. Use grammar concepts and skills that strengthen oral language
  • AssessedWSS II B1 Speaks clearly and conveys ideas effectively.

Objective

  1. Use complete sentences in conversation and to respond to questions

Topic

B. Usage

Indicator

  • 1. Comprehend and apply standard English in oral language
  • AssessedWSS II B1 Speaks clearly and conveys ideas effectively.

Objectives

  1. Use sentences with subject/verb agreement
  2. Use correct verb tense
  3. Use sentences with noun/pronoun agreement
  4. Use commonly confused words correctly, such as get/got, have/has

Topic

C. Mechanics

Indicator

  • 1. Explain the purpose of mechanics to make and clarify meaning

Objective

Indicator

  • 2. Comprehend and use basic punctuation and capitalization in written language

Objectives

  1. Use periods at the end of sentences
  2. Use capital letters for first letters of names and beginning sentences

Topic

D. Spelling

Indicator

  • 1. Apply conventional spelling in written language
  • AssessedWSS II D2 Uses letter-like shapes, symbols, letters, and words to convey meaning.

Objectives

  1. Spell first and last name correctly
  2. Spell a few high frequency words correctly
  3. Use letters to represent phonemes in words
  4. Use classroom resources to spell unknown words, such as labeled objects, word walls, charts, pictionaries

Topic

E. Handwriting

Indicator

  • 1. Produce writing that is legible to the audience

Objectives

  1. Develop fine motor skills necessary to control and sustain handwriting
  2. Form upper case and lower case manuscript letters


Standard 6.0 Listening

Students will demonstrate effective listening to learn, process, and analyze information.
For more Kindergarten assessment information view the Fall Exemplars and Spring Exemplars .

Topic

A. Listening

Indicator

  • 1. Demonstrate active listening strategies
  • AssessedWSS II A1 Gains meaning by listening.

Objective

  1. Attend to the speaker

Indicator

  • 2. Comprehend and analyze what is heard
  • AssessedWSS II A1 Gains meaning by listening.
  • WSS II A2 Follows directions that involve a series of actions.
  • AssessedWSS II A3 Demonstrates beginnng phonemic awareness.

Objectives

  1. Determine a speaker's general purpose
  2. Identify rhythms and patterns of language, including rhyme and repetition
  3. Demonstrate an understanding of what is heard by retelling and relating prior knowledge
  4. Follow a set of two- or three-step directions
  5. Listen carefully to expand and enrich vocabulary


Standard 7.0 Speaking

Student will communicate effectively in a variety of situations with different audiences, purposes, and formats.
For more Kindergarten assessment information view the Fall Exemplars and Spring Exemplars .

Topic

A. Speaking

Indicator

  • 1. Use organization and delivery strategies
  • AssessedWSS II B1 Speaks clearly and conveys ideas effectively.

Objective

  1. Speak clearly enough to be heard and understood in a variety of settings

Indicator

  • 2. Make oral presentations
  • WSS II B2 Uses expanded vocabulary and language for a variety of purposes.

Objectives

  1. Speak in a variety of situations to inform and/or relate experiences, such as retelling stories and/or state an opinion
  2. Use props in situations, such as show-and-tell


*Independent level text (Put Reading First) is relatively easy text for the reader, with no more than approximately 1 in 20 words that are difficult for the reader (95% success). Instructional level text (Put Reading First) is challenging but manageable text for the reader, with no more than approximately 1 in 10 words difficult for the reader (90% success). **Emphasis is on application of conventions rather than memorization of terms. Indicators/objectives that include assessment limits are assessed on MSA *New Standards identifies the need for students to process 1 million words per year to maintain academic progress.

11/15/07