School Improvement in Maryland

Using the State Standards: Social Studies, Grade 4

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Social Studies Skills and Processes:

Social Studies:

Social Studies Skills and Processes

Standard 6.0 Social Studies Skills and Processes

6.0 Social Studies Processes & Skills – Students shall use reading, writing, and thinking processes and skills to gain knowledge and understanding of political, historical, and current events using disciplinary and inquiry literacies. (Source: COMAR 2015)


Rationale


Maryland’s Social Studies State Standard was developed in 2006. When the C3 – College, Career & Civic Life Framework for Social Studies State Standards document was released in the fall of 2013 it became apparent that Maryland’s Standard 6.0 needed to be revised to reflect the process skills embedded in the new framework. As stated in the C3:


“Now more than ever, students need the intellectual power to recognize societal problems; ask good questions and develop robust investigations into them; consider possible solutions and consequences; separate evidence-based claims from parochial opinions; and communicate and act upon what they learn And most importantly, they must possess the capability and commitment to repeat that process as long as is necessary. Young people need strong tools for, and methods of, clear and disciplined thinking in order to traverse successfully the worlds of college, career, and civic life.” (C3, 2013, 6)


Social Studies educators revised Standard 6.0 to capture the best of the 2006 Skills and Processes document, the process skills from the C3 and connections to Maryland’s College and Career Ready Standards (MDCCRS). Standard developers will find this document a useful tool when planning lessons to addresses Standard 6.0 – “Students shall use reading, writing, and thinking processes and skills to gain knowledge and understanding of political, historical, and current events using disciplinary and inquiry literacies.”


Developing Questions & Planning Inquiries


“The development of compelling and supporting questions is a sophisticated intellectual activity (C3, 2013, 24).” Over time, the responsibility for identifying compelling and supporting questions should shift from teacher to student. By 6th grade, the expectation for student ownership of the compelling and supporting questions should start to increase. By 12th grade, the students should be constructing their own compelling and supporting questions for inquiry.


To plan an inquiry, students will determine the sources needed to help answer the compelling and supporting questions. They will determine the kinds of sources that will help in answering compelling and supporting questions. They will assess the multiple points of view represented in an argument or explanation, the types of sources available, and the potential use of sources.


With teacher guidance, by the end of grade 5 students will be able to

  1. Constructing Compelling Questions
    1. Identify a disciplinary topic that requires further study
    2. Identify possible questions for inquiry into the topic
    3. Explain key disciplinary concepts and ideas associated with the compelling questions
  2. Constructing Supporting Questions
    1. Construct supporting questions that connect with the compelling question
    2. Explain key disciplinary concepts and ideas associated with the supporting questions
  3. Determining Helpful Sources
    1. Identify the kinds of sources that will be helpful in answering the compelling or supporting questions
    2. Identify how different opinions may affect how compelling and supporting questions are answered and how sources may reflect these interpretations

Connections to Maryland College and Career Ready Standards (MDCCRS)

  • Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it (MDCCR Anchor Standard R.1).*
  • With teacher guidance, the students will select, read, and comprehend informational text that reflects grade level complexity (MDCCR Anchor Standard R.10).*

Applying Disciplinary Concepts & Tools


This section focuses on the disciplinary concepts and tools students need to understand and apply as they study the specific content prescribed in the state standard. It is divided into four sections – Civics (previously named Political Science in the state standard), Geography, Economics, and History.


Civics teaches the principles of government such as adherence to the social contract, consent of the governed, limited government, legitimate authority, federalism, and separation of powers that are meant to guide official institutions. It also teaches the virtues that allow individuals to analyze multiple perspectives, follow rules, and use the deliberative process when individuals engage in political participation and contribute to the public process.


With teacher guidance, by the end of grade 5 students will be able to

  1. Civic and Political Institutions
    1. Disciplinary concepts are addressed in Standard 1.0, State Standard except in areas where gaps were identified
  2. Participation and Political Deliberation
    1. Apply civic dispositions and skills when working with others
    2. Apply civic dispositions and skills when participating in school and community settings
    3. Use deliberative processes when making decisions or reaching judgments as a group.
    4. Identify the beliefs, experiences, perspectives, and values that underlie their own and others’ points of view about civic issues
  3. Processes, Rules, & Laws
    1. Disciplinary concepts are addressed in Standard 1.0, State Standard except in areas where gaps were identified

Effective economic decision making requires that students have a keen understanding of the ways in which individuals, business, government, and societies make decisions to allocate human capital, physical capital and natural resources among alternative uses.


With teacher guidance, by the end of grade 5 students will be able to

  1. Economic Decision Making
    1. Compare the benefits and costs of individual choices
    2. Apply the steps in the decision-making process to a financial situation
  2. Exchange and Markets (Begins in Grade 6)
  3. The National Economy (Begins in Grade 6)
  4. The Global Economy
    1. Investigate how social and cultural decisions affect the ecology and economy

Geographic inquiry helps people understand and appreciate their own place in the world. It fosters curiosity about earth’s wide diversity of environments and cultures. Geographic reasoning rests on understanding the earth’s physical and human features, including the locations of places and regions, the distribution of landforms and water bodies, and historic changes in political boundaries, economic activities, and geographic representation. It requires using spatial and environmental perspectives to analyze geographic issues and problems by using geographic representations.


With teacher guidance, by the end of grade 5 students will be able to

  1. Geographic Representations
    1. Construct maps, graphs, and other representations of familiar places
    2. Use maps, satellite images, photographs, and other representations to explain relationships between the locations of places and regions and their environmental characteristics
    3. Use maps of different scales to describe the locations of cultural and environmental characteristics
  2. Human-Environment Interaction: Place, Region, and Culture
  3. Human Population: Spatial Patterns and Movements
  4. Global Interconnections: Changing Spatial Patterns

Note: All indicators for B-D are content in nature and are addressed in the State Standard 3.0


Historical thinking requires understanding and evaluating change and continuity over time, and making appropriate use of historical evidence in answering questions and developing arguments about the past. Historical inquiry involves acquiring knowledge about significant events, developments, individuals, groups, documents, places, and ideas to support investigations


With teacher guidance, by the end of grade 5 students will be able to

  1. Change, Continuity, and Context
    1. Create and use a chronological sequence of related events to compare developments that happened at the same time
    2. Compare life in specific historical time periods to life today
    3. Generate questions about individuals and groups who have shaped significant historical changes and continuities
  2. Perspectives
    1. Explain why individuals and groups during the same historical period differed in their perspectives
    2. Explain connections among historical contexts and people’s perspectives at the time.
    3. Describe how people’s perspectives shaped the historical sources they created (Begins in Grade 9)
  3. Historical Sources & Evidence
    1. Summarize how different kinds of historical sources are used to explain events in the past
    2. Compare information provided by different historical sources about the past
    3. Infer the intended audience and purpose of a historical source from information within the source itself
    4. Generate questions about multiples historical sources and their relationships to particular historical events and developments
    5. Use information about a historical source, including the maker date, place of origin, intended audience, and purpose to judge the extent to which the source is useful for studying a particular topic
  4. Causation & Argumentation
    1. Explain probable causes and effects of events and developments (Begins in Grade 6)
    2. Use evidence to develop a claim about the past
    3. Summarize the central claim in a secondary work of history

Connections to Maryland College and Career Ready Standards (MDCCRS)

  • Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it (MDCCR Anchor Standard R.1). *
  • Integrate and evaluate content presented graphically, visually, orally, and multimodally as well as in words within and across print and digital sources (MDCCR Anchor Standard R.7). *
  • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and fluency of the evidence (MDCCR Anchor Standard R.8).*
  • With teacher guidance, the students will select, read, and comprehend informational text that reflects grade level complexity (MDCCR Anchor Standard R.10).*

* Standards for grades preK-5 reading and history/social studies are integrated into the Maryland College and Career Ready (MDCCR) Pre-K-5 Reading standards.
* Reading standards for grades 6-12 are divided into two sections, one for ELA and one for History/Social Studies.



Evaluating Sources & Using Evidence


“Evaluating sources and using evidence includes a sophisticated set of skills, even the youngest children understand the need to give reasons for their ideas. As they progress through the grades, students learn more advanced approaches related to these skills.” (C 3, 2013, 53)


With teacher guidance, by the end of grade 5 students will be able to

  1. Evaluating Sources
    1. Gather multiple sources that may be relevant to the task
    2. Describe and evaluate the origin, type, and context of each source in order to assess its value in answering the question
    3. Distinguish between fact and opinion within the sources to determine the credibility of multiple sources
    4. Identify credible, relevant information contained in the sources
  2. Developing Claims & Using Forms
    1. Identify evidence that draws information from multiple sources in response to compelling questions
    2. Use evidence to develop claims in response to compelling questions

Connections to Maryland College and Career Ready Standards (MDCCRS)

  • Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it (MDCCR Anchor Standard R.1). *
  • Integrate and evaluate content presented graphically, visually, orally, and multimodally as well as in words within and across print and digital sources (MDCCR Anchor Standard R.7). *
  • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and fluency of the evidence (MDCCR Anchor Standard R.8).*
  • With teacher guidance, the students will select, read, and comprehend informational text that reflects grade level complexity (MDCCR Anchor Standard R.10).*

* Standards for grades preK-5 reading and history/social studies are integrated into the Maryland College and Career Ready (MDCCR) Pre-K-5 Reading standards.
* Reading standards for grades 6-12 are divided into two sections, one for ELA and one for History/Social Studies.


Communicating and Critiquing Conclusions & Taking Informed Action:


“Communicating conclusions involves students formalizing their arguments and explanations. This can take the form of essays, reports, and multimedia presentations which offer students opportunities to represent their ideas in a variety of forms and communicate their conclusions to a range of audiences. Students’ primary audience will likely be their teachers and classmates, but even young children benefit from opportunities to share their conclusions with audiences outside their classroom doors.” (C3, 2013, 60)


Critiquing claims demands students to evaluate the sources, how the evidence is used, and the structure and/or form the arguments or explanations take. The critiquing of arguments and explanations deepens students’ understanding of concepts and tools in the disciplines and helps students strengthen their conclusions.

To take informed action, students use disciplinary knowledge, skills, and perspectives to analyze problems involved in public issues; deliberate with other people about how to define and address issues; after assessing options for action, take constructive, independent, and collaborative action; and then reflect on their actions. (C3, 2013, 62)


With teacher guidance, by the end of grade 5 students will be able to

  1. Communicating Conclusions
    1. Construct arguments using claims and evidence from multiple sources
    2. Construct explanations using reasoning, correct sequence, examples, and details with relevant information and data
    3. Present a summary of arguments and explanations to others outside the classroom using print and oral technologies (e.g., posters, essay, letters, debates, speeches, and reports) and digital technologies (e.g., internet, social media, and digital documentary)
  2. Critiquing Conclusions
    1. Critique arguments
    2. Critique explanations
  3. Taking Informed Action
    1. Draw on disciplinary concepts to Identify and explain local, regional, and global problems at various times and places
    2. Explain different strategies and approaches they and others could take to address local, regional, and global problems
    3. Use a range of deliberative and democratic procedures to make decision about and act on civic problems in their classrooms and schools

Connections to Maryland College and Career Ready Standards (MDCCRS)

  • Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it (MDCCR Anchor Standard R.1). *
  • Integrate and evaluate content presented graphically, visually, orally, and multimodally as well as in words within and across print and digital sources (MDCCR Anchor Standard R.7). *
  • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and fluency of the evidence (MDCCR Anchor Standard R.8). *
  • With teacher guidance, the students will select, read, and comprehend informational text that reflects grade level complexity (MDCCR Anchor Standard R.10). *
  • Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. (MDCCR Anchor Standard W.1.). *
  • Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. (MDCCR Anchor Standard SL 1.). *

* Standards for grades preK-5 reading and history/social studies are integrated into the Maryland College and Career Ready (MDCCR) Pre-K-5 Reading standards.
* Reading standards for grades 6-12 are divided into two sections, one for ELA and one for History/Social Studies.



Date: 04/2015