School Improvement in Maryland

Using the State Curriculum: Science, Grade 8

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Chemistry:

Science:

State Curriculum Toolkit

Tools aligned to State Curriculum indicators and/or objectives.

  • Clarification of Indicator and/or Objective
    Explanation and/or examples of indicator and/or objective
  • Introduction for Standard or Indicator
  • Public Release Items
    Actual MSA items and annotated student responses as appropriate

Standard 4.0 Chemistry

Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the composition, structure, and interactions of matter in order to support the predictability of structure and energy transformations.

Topic

A. Structure of Matter

Indicator

Objectives
  1. Describe how elements form compounds and molecules.
  2. Investigate and describe what happens to the properties of elements when they react chemically with other elements.
  3. Based on data from investigations and research compare the properties of compounds with those of the elements from which they are made.

Topic

B. Conservation of Matter

Indicator

  • 1. Provide evidence to support the fact that the idea of atoms explains conservation of matter.
Objectives
  1. Use appropriate tools to gather data and provide evidence that equal volumes of different substances usually have different masses.
  2. Cite evidence from investigations that the total mass of a system remains the same throughout a chemical reaction because the number of atoms of each element remains the same.
  3. Give reasons to justify the statement, "If the number of atoms stays the same no matter how the same atoms are rearranged, then their total mass stays the same."

Topic

C. States of Matter

Indicator

Objectives
  1. Based on data from investigations and video technology, describe and give reasons for what happens to a sample of matter when heat energy is added to it (most substances expand).
  2. Describe what the temperature of a solid, or a liquid, or a gas reveals about the motion of its atoms and molecules.
  3. Formulate an explanation for the different characterisctics and behaviors of solids, liquids, and gases using an analysis of the data gathered on the motion and arrangement of atoms and molecules.

Topic

D. Physical and Chemical Changes

Indicator

Objectives
  1. Cite evidence from investigations to explain how the components of mixtures can be separated.
  2. Use evidence from data gathered to explain why the components of compounds cannot be separated using physical properties.
  3. Analyze the results of research completed to develop a comparison of compounds and mixtures.

Indicator

Objectives
  1. Based on data from investigations and research, identify and describe chemical properties of common substances.
    • Reacts with oxygen (rusting/tarnishing and burning
    • Reacts with acids (dissolves metal)
    • Reacts with bases (forms soap)
  2. Use information gathered from investigations using indicators and the pH scale to classify materials as acidic, basic, or neutral.

Indicator

  • 3. Provide evidence to support the fact that common substances have the ability to change into new substances.
Objectives
  1. Investigate and describe the occurrence of chemical reactions using the following evidence:
    • Color change
    • Formation of a precipitate or gas
    • Release of heat or light
  2. Use evidence from observations to identify and describe factors that influence reaction rates.
  3. Identify the reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction given a symbolic equation, a word equation, or a description of the reaction.
  4. Provide data from investigations to support the fact that energy is transformed during chemical reactions.
  5. Provide examples to explain the difference between a physical change and a chemical change.

Note: Highlighting identifies assessment limits. All highlighted Indicators will be tested on the Grades 5 and 8 MSA. The highlighted Objectives under each highlighted Indicator identify the limit to which MSA items can be written. Although all content standards are tested on MSA, not all Indicators and Objectives are tested. Objectives that are not highlighted will not be tested on MSA, however are an integral part of Instruction.

January 2008