State Curriculum - Science

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Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3
Standard 1.0 Skills and Processes: Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science. Standard 1.0 Skills and Processes: Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science. Standard 1.0 Skills and Processes: Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science.
A. Constructing Knowledge A. Constructing Knowledge A. Constructing Knowledge
1. Raise questions about the world around them and be willing to seek answers to some of them by making careful observations and trying things out.
1. Raise questions about the world around them and be willing to seek answers to some of them by making careful observations and trying things out.
1. Gather and question data from many different forms of scientific investigations which include reviewing appropriate print resources, observing what things are like or what is happening somewhere, collecting specimens for analysis, and doing experiments.
a. Describe what can be learned about things by just observing those things carefully and adding information by sometimes doing something to the things and noting what happens.
a. Describe what can be learned about things by just observing those things carefully and adding information by sometimes doing something to the things and noting what happens.
a. Support investigative findings with data found in books, articles, and databases, and identify the sources used and expect others to do the same.
b. Seek information through reading, observation, exploration, and investigations.
b. Seek information through reading, observation, exploration, and investigations.
b. Select and use appropriate tools hand lens or microscope (magnifiers), centimeter ruler (length), spring scale (weight), balance (mass), Celsius thermometer (temperature), graduated cylinder (liquid volume), and stopwatch (elapsed time) to augment observations of objects, events, and processes.
c. Use tools such as thermometers, magnifiers, rulers, or balances to extend their senses and gather data.
c. Use tools such as thermometers, magnifiers, rulers, or balances to extend their senses and gather data.
c. Explain that comparisons of data might not be fair because some conditions are not kept the same.
d. Explain that when a science investigation is done the way it was done before, we expect to get a very similar result.
d. Explain that when a science investigation is done the way it was done before, we expect to get a very similar result.
d. Recognize that the results of scientific investigations are seldom exactly the same, and when the differences are large, it is important to try to figure out why.
e. Participate in multiple experiences to verify that science investigations generally work the same way in different places.
e. Participate in multiple experiences to verify that science investigations generally work the same way in different places.
e. Follow directions carefully and keep accurate records of one's work in order to compare data gathered.
f. Suggest things that you could do to find answers to questions raised by observing objects and/or phenomena (events such as, water disappearing from the classroom aquarium or a pet's water bowl).
f. Suggest things that you could do to find answers to questions raised by observing objects and/or phenomena (events such as, water disappearing from the classroom aquarium or a pet's water bowl).
f. Identify possible reasons for differences in results from investigations including unexpected differences in the methods used or in the circumstances in which the investigation is carried out, and sometimes just because of uncertainties in observations.
g. Use whole numbers and simple, everyday fractions in ordering, counting, identifying, measuring, and describing things and experiences.
g. Use whole numbers and simple, everyday fractions in ordering, counting, identifying, measuring, and describing things and experiences.
g. Judge whether measurements and computations of quantities are reasonable in a familiar context by comparing them to typical values when measured to the nearest:
B. Applying Evidence and Reasoning B. Applying Evidence and Reasoning B. Applying Evidence and Reasoning
1. People are more likely to believe your ideas if you can give good reasons for them.
1. People are more likely to believe your ideas if you can give good reasons for them.
1. Seek better reasons for believing something than "Everybody knows that..." or "I just know" and discount such reasons when given by others.
a. Provide reasons for accepting or rejecting ideas examined.
a. Provide reasons for accepting or rejecting ideas examined.
a. Develop explanations using knowledge possessed and evidence from observations, reliable print resources, and investigations.
b. Develop reasonable explanations for observations made, investigations completed, and information gained by sharing ideas and listening to others' ideas.
b. Develop reasonable explanations for observations made, investigations completed, and information gained by sharing ideas and listening to others' ideas.
b. Offer reasons for their findings and consider reasons suggested by others.
c. Explain why it is important to make some fresh observations when people give different descriptions of the same thing.
c. Explain why it is important to make some fresh observations when people give different descriptions of the same thing.
c. Review different explanations for the same set of observations and make more observations to resolve the differences.
    d. Keep a notebook that describes observations made, carefully distinguishes actual observations from ideas and speculations about what was observed, and is understandable weeks or months later.
C. Communicating Scientific Information C. Communicating Scientific Information C. Communicating Scientific Information
1. Ask, "How do you know?" in appropriate situations and attempt reasonable answers when others ask them the same question.
1. Ask, "How do you know?" in appropriate situations and attempt reasonable answers when others ask them the same question.
1. Recognize that clear communication is an essential part of doing science because it enables scientists to inform others about their work, expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and stay informed about scientific discoveries around the world.
a. Describe things as accurately as possible and compare observations with those of others.
a. Describe things as accurately as possible and compare observations with those of others.
a. Make use of and analyze models, such as tables and graphs to summarize and interpret data.
b. Describe and compare things in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, and motion.
b. Describe and compare things in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, and motion.
b. Avoid choosing and reporting only the data that show what is expected by the person doing the choosing.
c. Draw pictures that correctly portray at least some features of the thing being described and sequence events (seasons, seed growth).
c. Draw pictures that correctly portray at least some features of the thing being described and sequence events (seasons, seed growth).
c. Submit work to the critique of others which involves discussing findings, posing questions, and challenging statements to clarify ideas.
d. Have opportunities to work with a team, share findings with others, and recognize that all team members should reach their own conclusions about what the findings mean.
d. Have opportunities to work with a team, share findings with others, and recognize that all team members should reach their own conclusions about what the findings mean.
d. Construct and share reasonable explanations for questions asked.
e. Recognize that everybody can do science and invent things and ideas.
e. Recognize that everybody can do science and invent things and ideas.
e. Recognize that doing science involves many different kinds of work and engages men and women of all ages and backgrounds.
D. Technology D. Technology D. Technology
1. Design and make things with simple tools and a variety of materials.
1. Design and make things with simple tools and a variety of materials.
1. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS: Develop designs and analyze the products: "Does it work?" "Could I make it work better?" "Could I have used better materials?"
a. Make something out of paper, cardboard, wood, plastic, metal, or existing objects that can actually be used to perform a task.
a. Make something out of paper, cardboard, wood, plastic, metal, or existing objects that can actually be used to perform a task.
a. Choose appropriate common materials for making simple mechanical constructions and repairing things.
b. Recognize that tools are used to do things better or more easily and to do some things that could not otherwise be done at all.
b. Recognize that tools are used to do things better or more easily and to do some things that could not otherwise be done at all.
b. Realize that there is no perfect design and that usually some features have to be sacrificed to get others, for example, designs that are best in one respect (safety or ease of use) may be inferior in other ways (cost or appearance).
c. Assemble, describe, take apart and reassemble constructions using interlocking blocks, erector sets and the like.
c. Assemble, describe, take apart and reassemble constructions using interlocking blocks, erector sets and the like.
c. Identify factors that must be considered in any technological design-cost, safety, environmental impact, and what will happen if the solution fails.
d. Recognize that some kinds of materials are better than others for making any particular thing, for example, materials that are better in some ways (such as stronger and cheaper) may be worse in other ways (such as heavier and harder to cut).
d. Recognize that some kinds of materials are better than others for making any particular thing, for example, materials that are better in some ways (such as stronger and cheaper) may be worse in other ways (such as heavier and harder to cut).
 
e. Explain that sometimes it is not possible to make or do everything that is designed.
e. Explain that sometimes it is not possible to make or do everything that is designed.
 
2. Practice identifying the parts of things and how one part connects to and affects another.
2. Practice identifying the parts of things and how one part connects to and affects another.
1. DESIGNED SYSTEMS: Investigate a variety of mechanical systems and analyze the relationship among the parts.
a. Investigate a variety of objects to identify that most things are made of parts
a. Investigate a variety of objects to identify that most things are made of parts
a. Realize that in something that consists of many parts, the parts usually influence one another.
b. Explain that something may not work if some of its parts are missing.
b. Explain that something may not work if some of its parts are missing.
b. Explain that something may not work as well (or at all) if a part of it is missing, broken, worn out, mismatched, or misconnected.
c. Explain that when parts are put together, they can do things that they couldn't do by themselves.
c. Explain that when parts are put together, they can do things that they couldn't do by themselves.
 
3. Examine a variety of physical models and describe what they teach about the real things they are meant to resemble.
3. Examine a variety of physical models and describe what they teach about the real things they are meant to resemble.
1. MAKING MODELS: Examine and modify models and discuss their limitations.
a. Explain that a model of something is different from the real thing but can be used to learn something about the real thing.
a. Explain that a model of something is different from the real thing but can be used to learn something about the real thing.
a. Explain that a model is a simplified imitation of something and that a model's value lies in suggesting how the thing modeled works.
b. Realize that one way to describe something is to say how it is like something else.
b. Realize that one way to describe something is to say how it is like something else.
b. Investigate and describe that seeing how a model works after changes are made to it may suggest how the real thing would work if the same were done to it.
    c. Explain that models, such as geometric figures, number sequences, graphs, diagrams, sketches, number lines, maps, and stories can be used to represent objects, events, and processes in the real world, although such representations can never be exact in every detail.
    d. Realize that one way to make sense of something is to think how it is like something more familiar.
E. History of Science E. History of Science E. History of Science
 

Note: Highlighting identifies assessment limits. All highlighted Indicators will be tested on the Grades 5 and 8 MSA. The highlighted Objectives under each highlighted Indicator identify the limit to which MSA items can be written. Although all content standards are tested on MSA, not all Indicators and Objectives are tested. Objectives that are not highlighted will not be tested on MSA, however are an integral part of Instruction.

 

MSDE has developed a toolkit for these standards which can be found online at: http://mdk12.org/instruction/curriculum/science/vsc_toolkit.html.

 

January 2008