School Improvement in Maryland
Biology-Instructional Strategies
LABORATORY ACTIVITIES FOR GOAL 3 BIOLOGY
 

Goal 3: Biology Topics and Concepts for Suggested

Biology classrooms should be equipped with laboratory equipment and related technology which may include: microscopes (compound and stereo), computers, data gathering software and hardware, electronic balance, thermometers, pH meter, environmental study kit, VCR with content videotapes, water bath, hot plate, graphing calculator, biotechnology-related equipment (e.g. gel electrophoresis boxes, micropipette). Activities and text references are listed only as suggestions for the teacher; other similar activities may be appropriate. Please check the edition of your text for the correct page numbers.
 
Expectation 1
    Biologically Important Molecules: analyze foods for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, etc.
(Indicator 1)

Indicators (e.g. Benedict’s solution, Biuret solution, Sudan III, Indophenol, etc.)
Glassware (e.g. test tubes, beakers, flasks, buret or equivalent, graduated cylinders)
Hot plate

    Related Activities:
    The Dynamics of Life, "The Chemistry of Life", Glencoe
    Probing Levels of Life, "Detecting Compounds made by Living Things",
    Glencoe, Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
    Diffusion/Osmosis: observe movement of molecules in living systems or simulation
(Indicator 2)

Elodea, potato or dialysis tubing
Microscope
Slides, cover slips, droppers
Solutions of various solute concentrations

    Related Activities:
    The Dynamics of Life, "Normal and Plasmolyzed Cells"
    Probing Levels of Life, "Qualitative and Quantitative Plasmolysis"

 
    Enzyme Activity: observe the effect of temperature, pH, etc. on enzyme activity
(Indicator 2)

Acid/base solutions
Thermometer
Timing mechanism
Catalase (or fresh beef liver)
CBL with pressure sensor and graphing calculator (optional)

    Related Activities:
    Probing Levels of Life
    , "Extracellular Enzymes"
    The Dynamics of Life, "What is the action of Diastase?"
    Laboratory Techniques and Experimental Design, "Observing the Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity", Holt, Rhinehart & Winston

    Photosynthesis and Respiration: observing the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration
(Indicator 3)

Bromthymol blue
Elodea and snails
Test tubes with caps

    Related Activities:
    Laboratory Techniques and Experimental Design
    , "Measuring the Release of Energy from Sucrose"
    Probing Levels of Life, "Some Aspects of Photosynthesis"
    Dynamics of Life, "Do Dormant and Germinating Seeds Respire?"
     

Expectation 2
    Mitosis: observe onion root tip slides and estimate approximate duration of stages in mitosis
(Indicator 1)

Onion root tip or whitefish blastula slides

    Related Activities:
    Probing Levels of Life
    , "Significance of Time and Mitosis"
    Dynamics of Life, "DNA Sequencing"
    Animal and Plant Structures: Examine plant and animal structures, comparing organization and function. Use reference material to explain the function of each structure examined.
(Indicator 1)

Plant structures
Animal structures
Protozoan cultures

    Related Activities:
    Dynamics of Life
    , "What is the Effect of Light Intensity on Transpiration?",
    "How Do Snails Respond to Stimuli?",
    Probing Levels of Life, "Size and Structure of Protozoa"
    Heart Rate Lab: Demonstrate the effects of various factors (e.g. running, standing, sitting) on human heart rate.
(Indicator 1)

Heart rate monitor (optional)
Stopwatch
Sphygmomanometer

    Related Activities:
    Probing Levels of Life
    , "Effects of Exercise on the Heartbeat Rate"
    Dynamics of Life, "How Does Exercise Effect Heart Rate?"
    "Are You Physically Fit?", MSSA Master Teacher Grant, 1998
    Environmental conditions necessary for survival: Analyze the environmental conditions necessary for the survival of a test organism (e.g. Daphnia, E. coli, Artemia)
(Indicator 2)

    Related Activities:
    Probing Levels of Life
    , "Effect of Temperature on Seed Germination"
    Laboratory Techniques and Experimental Design, "Response in the Fruit Fly"
     
Expectation 3
    Sexual reproduction: demonstrate how sorting and recombination of genes results in genetic variation among offspring
(Indicator 1)

Meiosis models and/or simulation materials
Corn, Fast Plants TM , Drosophila or simulations

    Related Activities:
    Laboratory Techniques and Experimental Design
    , "Modeling Meiosis"
    Dynamics of Life, "Observation of Meiosis"
    Inheritance patterns: demonstrate how traits are inherited including Punnett squares and pedigree analysis
(Indicator 2)

Corn, Fast Plants TM , Drosophila or simulations

    Related Activities:
    The HBJ Biofile
    , "A Human Pedigree", Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich
    Probing Levels of Life, "Drosophila Genetics"
    Nucleic acid structure and function: demonstrate the relationship between the structure of DNA and its role in determining traits
(Indicator 3)

Models of DNA and processes of replication, transcription, translation, and protein synthesis
Colored paper

    Related Activities:
    Probing Levels of Life
    , "DNA Models"
    Dynamics of Life, "DNA Sequencing"
    Protein synthesis: simulate the process of protein synthesis, beginning with a segment of DNA and resulting in a sequence of amino acids, i.e. polypeptide or protein
(Indicator 3)

Genetic code table

    Related Activities:
    Probing Levels of Life
    , "Modeling Protein Synthesis"
    Dynamics of Life, "DNA Sequencing"

 
    Genetic alteration: demonstrate beneficial and harmful effects of genetic alteration
(Indicator 4)

Simulation materials OR
Gel electrophoresis materials for restriction enzyme analysis
Transformation equipment (i.e. agar, Petri dishes, bacteria, etc.)

    Related Activities:
    Laboratory Techniques and Experimental Design
    , "DNA Whodunit"
    Dynamics of Life, "DNA Sequencing"

Expectation 4
    Diversity and natural selection: show how protective coloration and specially adapted anatomy can enhance the survival of a species
(Indicator 1)

Predator-prey simulation
Animal and plant specimens

    Related Activities:
    Probing Levels of Life
    , "Adaptation"
    Dynamics of Life, "Plant Survival"
    Laboratory Techniques and Experimental Design, "Screening for Resistance to Tobacco Mosaic Virus"
    Classification of organisms: observe relationships between organisms based on anatomy and physiology; use keys to identify organisms.
(Indicator 2)

A collection of preserved or living specimens (e.g. animals, pressed flowers, leaves)
Identification keys

    Related Activities:
    Probing Levels of Life
    , "Variation Within a Species and Between Species"; "Construction and Use of a Dichotomous Key"
    Dynamics of Life, "Analyzing Fossil Molds"

 
Genetic relationships between organisms: analyze DNA/amino acid sequences from various species
(Indicator 2)

DNA or amino acid sequences

    Related Activities:
    Laboratory Technique and Experimental Design
    , "Analyzing Blood Serum to Determine Evolutionary Relationships"
    Dynamics of Life, "Gene Frequencies and Sickle Cell Anemia"
    Probing Levels of Life, "Evolutionary Changes in Primates"
     
Expectation 5
    Abiotic factors: experiment to determine the effects of abiotic factors on organisms ( e.g. light, heat, pH)
(Indicator 1, see Expectation 2, Indicator 2)

    Related Activities:
    Laboratory Techniques and Experimental Design, "Screening Sunscreens"
    Dynamics of Life, "What is the Effect of Light Intensity on Transpiration?"
    Probing Levels of Life, "Effects of Salt Concentration on Development of Brine Shrimp"; "Assessing Abiotic Factors in the Environment"
    Biotic factors: observe the interdependence of organisms in various relationships (e.g. predator-prey, parasite-host, mutualistic, etc.)
(Indicator 1)

Specimens, living and preserved
Terraria, aquaria
Simulations

    Related Activities:
    Probing Levels of Life
    , Interspecific Relationships Between Populations
    Laboratory Technique and Experimental Design, Examining Owl Pellets
    Dynamics of Life, The Lesson of the Kaibab
    Natural Selection/Succession: identify characteristics that increase survivability under changed environmental conditions
(Indicator 2)

Culture materials for succession demonstration
Field study equipment

    Related Activities:
    Probing Levels of Life
    , "Ecological Succession in a Microenvironment"
    Laboratory Technique and Experimental Design, "Studying an Algal Bloom’
    Ecosystem analysis: collect and analyze data on abiotic and biotic factors in a local ecosystem (e.g. stream, pond, woodland, etc.)
(Indicator 3)

Water quality testing kits (e.g. dissolved oxygen, nitrates, phosphates, turbidity)
Biological keys (e.g. invertebrates, plants, flowers, trees)
Macroinvertebrate testing apparatus (e.g. kick-seine, nets, etc.)

    Related Activities:
    Probing Levels of Life
    , "Field Study of a Terrestrial Ecosystem"; "Field Study of a Freshwater Ecosystem"
    Laboratory Techniques and Experimental Design, "Assessing and Mapping Factors in the Environment"
    Dynamics of Life, "What Organisms Make Up a Microcommunity?"