# Using the Core Learning Goals: Science

## CLG Toolkit

Tools aligned to CLG expectations and/or indicators.

 Skills And Processes Concepts Of Physics

## Goal 5: Concepts Of Physics

The student will demonstrate the ability to use scientific skills and processes (Core Learning Goal 1) to explain and predict the outcome of certain interactions which occur between matter and energy.

### Expectation

5.1 The student will know and apply the laws of mechanics to explain the behavior of the physical world.

### Indicator

• 5.1.1 The student will use analytical techniques appropriate to the study of physics.

###### Assessment limits:
• distinguish between scalar and vector quantities (e.g. speed v. velocity; distance v. displacement)
• symbolically represent vector quantities (angle for direction, length for magnitude)
• add vectors (same and opposite directions and at right angles)
• resolve vectors graphically

### Indicator

• 5.1.2 The student will use algebraic and geometric concepts to qualitatively and quantitatively describe an object’s motion.

###### Assessment limits:
• motion with a constant velocity
• motion with a constant acceleration
• linear frames of reference
• projectile motion (mathematical solutions limited to initial horizontal velocity only; conceptual questions not restricted)
• free fall

### Indicator

• 5.1.3 The student will analyze and explain how Newton’s Laws describe changes in an object’s motion.

###### Assessment limits:
• the effect of balanced forces (fnet = 0) (quantitative and qualitative)
• the effect of unbalanced forces (fnet ≠ 0) (quantitative and qualitative)
• inertia (application) (qualitative only)
• relationship among force, mass and acceleration (describe qualitative relationships and calculate)
• action/reaction (application)

### Indicator

• 5.1.4 The student will analyze the behavior of forces.

###### Assessment limits:
• friction (qualitative description of its nature and behavior)
• inverse square relationship of gravity (describe how the force changes as the distance changes)
• relation to work and power (qualitative and quantitative)
• relation to impulse and momentum (qualitative and quantitative)

### Indicator

• 5.1.5 The student will analyze systems with regard to the conservation laws.

###### Assessment limits:
• conservation of momentum (applications and calculation in one dimension)
• conservation of energy (relationship between potential and kinetic including calculations and conversions)

### Expectation

5.2 The student will know and apply the laws of electricity and magnetism and explain their significant role in nature and technology.

### Indicator

• 5.2.1 The student will describe the types of electric charges and the forces that exist between them.

###### Assessment limits:
• inverse square relationship of electrical forces (describe how the force changes as the distance changes)
• the attractive/repulsive nature of the forces between charges
• Coulomb’s Law (describe qualitative relationships)

### Indicator

• 5.2.2 The student will describe the sources and effects of electric and magnetic fields.

###### Assessment limits:
• Qualitative description of electric field created by a static charge distribution (point charge, line of charge, parallel plates)
• Qualititative description of magnetic field created by moving charges
• Qualitative description of the force on a moving charge or on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field
• Simple D.C. series and parallel circuits (diagram of series and parallel circuits; use of meters to measure quantities in each circuit; calculations of voltage, current, and resistance using Ohm’s Law; and calculations of equivalent resistance and power)
• Practical applications (safety, grounding, circuit breakers, fuses)

### Indicator

• 5.2.3 The student will qualitatively describe the applications of electromagnetic induction.

###### Assessment limits:
• Electromagnetic induction (definition)
• Motors (energy transformations)
• Generators (energy transformations)

### Expectation

5.3 The student will recognize and relate the laws of thermodynamics to practical applications.

### Indicator

• 5.3.1 The student will relate thermodynamics to the balance of energy in a system.

###### Assessment limits:
• Thermal equilibrium (conditions and definition, differentiate between heat energy and temperature)
• Heat energy transfer (conduction, convection, radiation)
• Application of heat energy to the Law of Conservation of Energy
• Irreversibility of heat energy transformations
• Specific heat and calorimetry (both describe and calculate)

### Expectation

5.4 The student will explain and demonstrate how vibrations and waves provide a model for our understanding of various physical phenomena.

### Indicator

• 5.4.1 The student will compare qualitatively how waves are propagated and transmit energy.

###### Assessment limits:
• Physical v. electromagnetic (transmission media, relative speeds, examples such as sound and light)
• Longitudinal v. transverse (direction of vibration relative to direction of transmission, examples such as sound and light)

### Indicator

• 5.4.2 The student will describe wave characteristics using both diagrams and calculations.

###### Assessment limits:
• Wavelength
• Frequency (including relationship to period and energy transmitted)
• Velocity
• Amplitude (including relationship to energy transmitted)

### Indicator

• 5.4.3 The student will qualitatively describe the physical behaviors of waves.

###### Assessment limits:
• Reflection (apply the law of reflection, represent image formation for plane and concave surfaces using a ray diagram)
• Refraction (causes and resultant behavior, which may include ray diagrams for behavior at a plane boundary and for double convex lenses)
• Diffraction (causes and relationship between wavelength and size of opening)
• Interference (constructive and destructive)
• Polarization (relation to type of wave, effect on intensity of light)
• Doppler effect (examples and explanation including frequency shift)

### Expectation

5.5 The student will investigate certain topics in modern physics.

### Indicator

• 5.5.1 The student will cite evidence of the wave/particle duality in the nature of matter.

###### Assessment limits:
• Wave/particle duality of electromagnetic energy (electron-positron annihilation, conservation of mass and energy/E = mc2)
• Photoelectric effect (relationship of current produced to frequency and intensity of wave)

### Indicator

• 5.5.2 The student will qualitatively explain the processes associated with nuclear energy and its applications.

###### Assessment limits:
• Radioactive decay (half-life; alpha, beta, and gamma emission processes)
• Fission/fusion (distinguish between, compare with other sources of energy)