School Improvement in Maryland

Core Learning Goals for Government

The High School Assessments assess student's knowledge of Core Learning Goals at the indicator level. Some indicators have assessment limits which indicate more specifically what will be assessed. Assessment items and other instructional resources at the indicator level can be viewed in the CLG Toolkit.

Print Government:

  • Goals Draft 6/2002 (Acrobat 342k)

Goal 1 Political Systems

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the historical development and current status of principles, institutions, and processes of political systems.

Expectation 1.1

The student will demonstrate understanding of the structure and functions of government and politics in the United States.

Indicator

  • 1.1.1 The student will analyze historic documents to determine the basic principles of United States government and apply them to real-world situations.

Assessment limits:
  • Documents: Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Students are to know which rights/protections are addressed by the first ten amendments. Students are not expected to know the contents of any document by number.
  • Other documents and amendments may be used to assess the principles, but information will be provided.
  • Basic principles: federalism, separation of powers, checks and balances, judicial review, representative democracy, limited government, rule of law, individual rights and responsibilities, consent of the governed, majority rule, popular sovereignty, equal protection.

Indicator

  • 1.1.2 The student will evaluate how the principles of government assist or impede the functioning of government.

Assessment limits:
  • Concepts: federalism, separation of powers, checks and balances, judicial review, representative democracy, limited government, rule of law, individual rights and responsibilities, consent of the governed, majority rule, popular sovereignty, equal protection, and eminent domain.
  • Federal and Maryland state government: Legislative, Executive and Judicial – powers, structure and organization.
  • Local government will be assessed in terms of powers and responsibilities.
  • Selection of National and Maryland state leaders: Electoral College and election/appointment processes.

Indicator

  • 1.1.3 The student will evaluate roles and policies the government has assumed regarding public issues.

Assessment limits:
  • Public issues:
  • Environment (pollution, land use)
  • Entitlements (Social Security, welfare)
  • Health care and public health (costs, substance abuse, diseases)
  • Censorship (media, technology)
  • Crime (prevention, punishments)
  • Equity (race, ethnicity, region, religion, gender, language, Socioeconomic status, age, and individuals with disabilities)

Indicator

  • 1.1.4 The student will explain roles and analyze strategies individuals or groups may use to initiate change in governmental policy and institutions.

Assessment limits:
  • Political parties, interest groups, lobbyists, candidates, citizens, and the impact of the media on elections, elected officials and public opinion.
  • Referendum and initiative processes.

Expectation 1.2

The student will evaluate how the United States government has maintained a balance between protecting rights and maintaining order.

Indicator

  • 1.2.1 The student will analyze the impact of landmark Supreme Court decisions on governmental powers, rights, and responsibilities of citizens in our changing society.

Assessment limits:
  • Cases included: Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, Miranda v. Arizona, Gideon v. Wainwright, Tinker v. Des Moines Board of Education, and New Jersey v. T.L.O.
  • Other cases that address the same issues could be used, but information about these cases will be provided in the item.

Indicator

  • 1.2.2 The student will analyze legislation designed to protect the rights of individuals and groups and to promote equity in American society.

Assessment limits:
  • Legislation that addresses the rights of individuals and groups: minority and women’s rights, civil rights (affirmative action), and Native American rights.
  • Legislation that addresses immigration policies.
  • Information about the legislation will be provided in the item.

Indicator

  • 1.2.3 The student will evaluate the impact of governmental decisions and actions that have affected the rights of individuals and groups in American society and/or have affected maintaining order and/or safety.

Assessment limits:
  • Presidential use of power and executive orders affecting rights, order, and/or safety.
  • National government agencies’ actions affecting rights, order, and/or safety.
  • State actions affecting rights, order, and/or safety.

Indicator

  • 1.2.4 The student will evaluate the principle of due process.

Assessment limits:
  • Fifth Amendment due process clause.
  • Fourteenth Amendment due process clause.
  • Procedural due process and the incorporation doctrine under the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • Information about due process cases will be provided in the item.

Indicator

  • 1.2.5 The student will analyze elements, proceedings, and decisions related to criminal and civil law.

Assessment limits:
  • Compare and contrast the elements, proceedings and decisions of civil and criminal law.
  • Civil law: plaintiff, defendant, contract, breach of contract, torts (lawsuits involving negligence), damages, preponderance of evidence, petit jury, and out-of-court settlements.
  • Criminal law: defendant, prosecutor, reasonable doubt, felony, misdemeanor, grand jury, indictment, probable cause, presumption of innocence, plea bargaining, writ of habeas corpus, and subpoena.

Goal 2 Peoples Of The Nation And World

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the history, diversity, and commonality of the peoples of the nation and world, the reality of human interdependence, and the need for global cooperation, through a perspective that is both historical and multicultural.

Expectation 2.1

The student will evaluate the interdependent relationship of United States politics and government to world affairs.

Indicator

  • 2.1.1 The student will analyze economic, political, social issues and their affect on foreign policies of the United States.

Assessment limits:
  • Policies of United States government that promote or fail to promote relationships with other countries include national defense (military), arms control, and security of other nations, trade, human rights, economic sanctions, and foreign aid.
  • Contemporary concerns which affect international relationships including: national security, economic well-being, the spread of democracy, developing nations, weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, and global economic conditions.

Indicator

  • 2.1.2 The student will evaluate the effectiveness of international alliances and organizations from the perspective of the United States.

Assessment limits:
  • United Nations and other organizations categorized as:
    • Security – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    • Economic – North American Free Trade
    • Agreement, International Monetary Fund, World Bank
    • Humanitarian – International Red Cross
  • Issues of national sovereignty, self-determination, and human rights on U.S. Interdependent relationships.
  • Other examples of alliances and organizations in which the United States participates may be used, but information will be provided in the item.

Expectation 2.2

The student will compare and evaluate the effectiveness of the United States system of government and various other political systems.

Indicator

  • 2.2.1 The student will analyze advantages and disadvantages of various types of governments throughout the world.

Assessment limits:
  • Types of political systems including: democratic (parliamentary, presidential) and authoritarian (monarchy, oligarchy, dictatorship and totalitarian).
  • Forms of government: confederation, federal, unitary.

Goal 3 Geography

The student will demonstrate an understanding of geographic concepts and processes to examine the role of culture, technology, and the environment in the location and distribution of human activities throughout history.

Expectation 3.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the relationship of cultural and physical geographic factors in the development of government policy.

Indicator

  • 3.1.1 The student will evaluate demographic factors related to political participation, public policy and government policies.

Assessment limits:
  • Political causes and effects of reapportionment, redistricting and voting patterns.
  • Influence of demographic factors on government funding decisions.

Indicator

  • 3.1.2 The student will evaluate the role of government in addressing land use and other environmental issues.

Assessment limits:
  • National, state, and/or local issues.
  • Issues will include urban sprawl and government policy regarding growth and land use/zoning.

Indicator

  • 3.1.3 The student will analyze the roles and relationships of regions on the formation and implementation of government policy.

Assessment limits:
  • International, national, state, and/or regional interests that may shape government policy.
  • Patterns, trends and projections of population growth in regions and how these may affect the environment, society and government policy.
  • Examples of the criteria used to define a region include economic development, natural resources, population, religion and climate. Regional means different areas within Maryland (e.g. Eastern Shore, mining region, Piedmont Plateau), the United States (e.g., Northeast, sunbelt, mid-Atlantic regions) and the world.

Goal 4 Economics

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the historical development and current status of economic principles, institutions, and processes needed to be effective citizens, consumers, and workers.

Expectation 4.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of economic principles, institutions, and processes required to formulate government policy.

Indicator

  • 4.1.1 The student will evaluate how governments affect the answers to the basic economic questions of what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce.

Assessment limits:
  • Role of government in answering the basic economic questions in traditional, market, command and mixed economies.

Indicator

  • 4.1.2 The student will utilize the principles of economic costs and benefits and opportunity cost to analyze the effectiveness of government policy in achieving socio-economic goals.

Assessment limits:
  • The role of scarcity and opportunity cost in government decision making.
  • Competing socio-economic goals including: economic freedom, growth, stability, equity, security, productivity, national defense, environmental protection, and educational quality.

Indicator

  • 4.1.3 The student will examine regulatory agencies and their social, economic, and political impact on the country, a region, or on/within a state.

Assessment limits:
  • How regulatory agencies respond to social issues/concerns, and/or market failures.
  • Regulatory agencies that respond to social issues and/or market failures:
    • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
    • Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    • Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
    • Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
    • Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

    Other national agencies and state and local agencies can be used, but information will be provided in the item.

Indicator

  • 4.1.4 The student will evaluate the effectiveness of current monetary and fiscal policy on promoting full employment, price stability, and economic performance.

Assessment limits:
  • Business cycle, monetary policy (Federal Reserve actions) and fiscal policy (Legislative and Executive actions) and their effect on economic performance, full employment, and price stability.
  • Tools of monetary policy (Federal Reserve System – FED) include the reserve requirement, interest rates, and open-market operations (buying and selling of government securities).
  • Tools of fiscal policy include increasing/decreasing taxes and tariffs and/or spending.
  • Measures of economic performance include Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Consumer Price Index (CPI), and unemployment rate.