School Improvement in Maryland

Core Learning Goals for English

The High School Assessments assess student's knowledge of Core Learning Goals at the indicator level. Some indicators have assessment limits which indicate more specifically what will be assessed. Assessment items and other instructional resources at the indicator level can be viewed in the CLG Toolkit.

Print English:

Goal 1 Reading, Reviewing and Responding to Texts

The student will demonstrate the ability to respond to a text by employing personal experiences and critical analysis.

Expectation 1.1

The student will use effective strategies before, during, and after reading, viewing, and listening to self-selected and assigned materials.

Indicator

  • 1.1.1 The student will use pre-reading strategies appropriate to both the text and purpose for reading by surveying the text, accessing prior knowledge, formulating questions, setting purpose(s), and making predictions.

Assessment limits:
  • Recognizing the implications of text features
  • Linking appropriate experiences and prior knowledge about the topic, author, or type of material to the text
  • Identifying an appropriate purpose for reading the text
  • Identifying questions a reader would expect to be answered by reading the text
  • Identifying topics of discussion that may enhance a reader’s understanding of a text

Indicator

  • 1.1.2 The student will use during-reading strategies appropriate to both the text and purpose for reading by visualizing, making connections, and using fix-up strategies such as re-reading, questioning, and summarizing.

Assessment limits:
  • Using visual aids
  • Making connections between ideas within the text
  • Making connections between ideas within the text and relevant prior knowledge
  • Identifying the organizational pattern of the text
  • Focusing on similarities or differences in organizational patterns, text/author’s purpose, and relevant prior knowledge within or across texts
  • Identifying the meaning of above-grade-level words as they are used in context
  • Identifying the appropriate meaning of multiple-meaning words as they are used in context
  • Identifying the meaning of phrases as they are used in context
  • Predicting the development of ideas that might logically be included in the text

Indicator

  • 1.1.3 The student will use after-reading strategies appropriate to both the text and purpose for reading by summarizing, comparing, contrasting, synthesizing, drawing conclusions, and validating the purpose for reading.

Assessment limits:
  • Summarizing, comparing, contrasting, and synthesizing significant ideas in a text
  • Summarizing or synthesizing significant ideas across texts and drawing conclusions based on the information in more than one text
  • Drawing conclusions based upon information from the text
  • Confirming the usefulness or purpose for reading the text
  • Predicting the development, topics, or ideas that might logically be included if the text were extended

Indicator

  • 1.1.4 The student will apply reading strategies when comparing, making connections, and drawing conclusions about non-print text.

Assessment limits:
  • Recognizing the implications of non-print text such as photographs, posters, art reproductions, cartoons, and stills from film or stage productions
  • Identifying an appropriate purpose for viewing non-print text
  • Confirming the usefulness or purpose for viewing a non-print text
  • Evaluating non-print text as it relates to a print text
  • Focusing on similarities and/or differences in purpose and effect across texts
  • Summarizing, comparing, drawing conclusions about, and synthesizing significant ideas between print and non-print text

Indicator

  • 1.1.5 The student will identify specific structural elements of particular literary forms: poetry, short story, novel, drama, essay, biography, autobiography, journalistic writing, and film.

Expectation 1.2

The student will construct, examine, and extend meaning of traditional and contemporary works recognized as having significant literary merit.

Indicator

  • 1.2.1 The student will consider the contributions of plot, character, setting, conflict, and point of view when constructing the meaning of a text.

Assessment limits:
  • Determining the significance of the following as each contributes to the meaning of a text
    • plot sequence of events (including foreshadowing and flashback), cause-and-effect relationships, and events that are exposition, climax or turning point, resolution (Students will not be asked to label events.)
    • characters' defining traits, motivations, and developments throughout the text
    • details that provide clues to the setting, the mood created by the setting, and the role the setting plays in the text
    • conflicts that motivate characters and those that serve to advance the plot
    • the perspective of the author or speaker as well as the effects of first or third person narration and multiple narrators within and across text(s)

Indicator

  • 1.2.2 The student will determine how the speaker, organization, sentence structure, word choice, tone, rhythm, and imagery reveal an author’s purpose.

Assessment limits:
  • Identifying and/or explaining the significance of the following as each contributes to the author's purpose
    • a particular speaker in a text
    • the arrangement of ideas in a particular way
    • the arrangement of words or phrases
    • words that convey author's purpose
    • syntax, words, and syllables that create rhythm to reveal the meaning of the text
    • implied meaning or particular image associated with a particular word or phrase

Indicator

  • 1.2.3 The student will explain the effectiveness of stylistic elements in a text that communicate an author’s purpose.

Assessment limits:
  • Identifying and/or explaining the effect and/or effectiveness of the following as each contributes to the author's purpose
    • repetition
    • exaggeration
    • parallelism
    • allusion
    • analogy
    • figurative language
    • transitions
    • choice of details
    • syntax
    • organizational patterns
    • structural features

Indicator

  • 1.2.4 The student will identify and/or explain connections between and among themes and/or styles of two or more texts.

Assessment limits:
  • Analyzing the similarities or differences in styles (e.g., formal, informal, conversational, scholarly, journalistic, poetic) of two or more texts
  • Analyzing the similarities or differences in themes of two or more texts
  • Analyzing the ways in which different texts illustrate a similar theme

Indicator

  • 1.2.5 The student will extend or further develop meaning by explaining the implications of the text for the reader or contemporary society.

Assessment limits:
  • Identifying and/or explaining ideas and issues of a text or across texts that may have implications for readers or contemporary society
  • Extending ideas found in a text or across texts by connecting them to ideas that have personal or societal relevance

Indicator

  • 1.2.6 The student will extend or further develop meaning by comparing texts presented in different media.

Expectation 1.3

The student will explain and give evidence to support perceptions about print and non-print works.

Indicator

  • 1.3.1 The student will explain how language and textual devices create meaning.

Indicator

  • 1.3.2 The student will interpret a work by using a critical approach (e.g., reader response, historical, cultural, biographical, structural) that is supported with textual references.

Indicator

  • 1.3.3 The student will identify features of language that create tone and voice.

Assessment limits:
  • Analyzing the effects of certain words and phrases on the tone or voice of a text or across texts
  • Identifying similarities or differences in the overall tone created by language choices throughout a text or across texts

Indicator

  • 1.3.4 The student will explain how devices such as staging, lighting, blocking, special effects, graphics, language, and other techniques unique to a non-print medium are used to create meaning and evoke response.

Indicator

  • 1.3.5 The student will explain how common and universal experiences serve as the source of literary themes that cross time and cultures.

Assessment limits:
  • Identifying the experiences, emotions, issues and ideas in a text or across texts that give rise to universal literary themes
  • Considering the influence, effect, or impact of historical, cultural, or biographical information on a text (will not be dependent on student’s prior knowledge)

Indicator

  • 1.3.6 The student will assess the literary merit of a text.

Goal 2 Composing in a Variety of Modes

The student will demonstrate the ability to compose in a variety of modes by developing content, employing specific forms, and selecting language appropriate for a particular audience and purpose.

Expectation 2.1

The student will compose oral, written, and visual presentations that inform, persuade, and express personal ideas.

Indicator

  • 2.1.1 The student will compose to inform by using appropriate types of prose.

Assessment limits:
  • Composing to explain an idea or examine a topic
    • using description to support the writing purpose
    • using personal ideas to support the writing purpose
  • Composing to meet the criteria of the ECR rubric
    • fulfilling the writing purpose as stated in the prompt
    • including relevant and complete support of ideas
    • organizing appropriately for the writing purpose
    • using language carefully and correctly
    • demonstrating attention to audience understanding and interest
    • having no errors in usage or conventions that interfere with meaning

Indicator

  • 2.1.2 The student will compose to describe, using prose and/or poetic forms.

Indicator

  • 2.1.3 The student will compose to express personal ideas, using prose and/or poetic forms.

Indicator

  • 2.1.4 The student will compose persuasive texts that support, modify, or refute a position and include effective rhetorical strategies.

Assessment limits:
  • Composing to state and support, refute, or modify a position
    • using description to support the writing purpose
    • using personal ideas to support the writing purpose
  • Composing to meet the criteria of the ECR rubric
    • fulfilling the writing purpose as stated in the prompt
    • including relevant and complete support of ideas
    • organizing appropriately for the writing purpose
    • using language carefully and correctly
    • demonstrating attention to audience understanding and interest
    • having no errors in usage or conventions that interfere with meaning

Expectation 2.2

The student will compose texts using the prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing strategies of effective writers and speakers.

Indicator

  • 2.2.1 The student will use a variety of prewriting strategies to generate and develop ideas.

Assessment limits:
  • Identifying an appropriate prewriting strategy for a specific purpose or topic
  • Identifying relevant sources of information

Indicator

  • 2.2.2 The student will select and organize ideas for specific audiences and purposes.

Assessment limits:
  • Selecting a logical sequence of ideas or sentences
  • Determining an appropriate organizational structure emphasizing purpose and/or audience
  • Selecting or deleting information to suit a given purpose or audience
  • Identifying the logical placement of a sentence or paragraph within a text

Indicator

  • 2.2.3 The student will revise and edit texts for clarity, completeness, and effectiveness.

Assessment limits:
  • Completing or expanding ideas
    • logical coordination of ideas
    • subordination to replace excessive coordination
    • logical or succinct subordination
    • subordination to show space or time, cause or effect, condition, or concession
    • sequence of ideas in a sentence for effectiveness and emphasis
    • conciseness (eliminating redundancy, superfluous words and phrases, and awkward constructions)
  • Attending to audience
    • elaboration or support sentences
    • transitional devices between sentences and paragraphs
    • coherence (focusing on a central idea)
    • clear connectors
    • word choice
    • inverted word order for effectiveness
  • Controlling language structures
    • clear placement of modifiers
    • shifts in person, number, and tone
    • misplaced and dangling modifiers

Indicator

  • 2.2.4 The student will rehearse oral texts for effective application of diction, intonation, and rhetorical strategies, such as introductions, sequence, illustrations, and conclusions.

Indicator

  • 2.2.5 The student will use suitable traditional and electronic resources to refine presentations and edit texts for effective and appropriate use of language and conventions.

Assessment limits:
  • Using resources to select and use appropriate language
    • avoiding the use of trite expressions and clichés
    • using smooth and informative transitions
    • arranging parallel elements appropriately and effectively
    • selecting appropriate use of active or passive voice
    • selecting an appropriate word for a given purpose

Indicator

  • 2.2.6 The student will prepare the final product for presentation to an audience.

Expectation 2.3

The student will locate, retrieve, and use information from various sources to accomplish a purpose.

Indicator

  • 2.3.1 The student will identify sources of information on a self-selected and/or given topic and assess their appropriateness to accomplish a purpose.

Assessment limits:
  • Determining the appropriateness of a resource to accomplish a purpose
    • dictionary
    • thesaurus
    • encyclopedia
    • magazines
    • newspapers
    • fiction and nonfiction books
    • card catalogue (traditional and electronic)
    • on-line websites and electronic resources

Indicator

  • 2.3.2 The student will use various information retrieval sources (traditional and electronic) to obtain information on a self-selected and/or given topic. Electronic sources include automated catalogs, CD ROM products, and on-line services like Internet, World Wide Web, and others.

Indicator

  • 2.3.3 The student will use a systematic process for recording and documenting information.

Assessment limits:
  • Assessing the advantages, disadvantages, or limitations of sources of information (e.g., comprehensiveness, honesty, reliability, bias, accuracy, availability, variety, currency, multiple points of view)
  • Identifying information to include or exclude in a reference citation when using either traditional or electronic sources of information
  • Determining information that should be documented

Indicator

  • 2.3.4 The student will take a position and support it with documented information from an authoritative source.

Indicator

  • 2.3.5 The student will synthesize information from two or more sources to fulfill a self-selected or given purpose.

Goal 3 Controlling Language

The student will demonstrate the ability to control language by applying the conventions of Standard English in writing and speaking.

Expectation 3.1

The student will demonstrate understanding of the nature and structure of language, including grammar concepts and skills, to strengthen control of oral and written language.

Indicator

  • 3.1.1 The student will demonstrate the advantages and limitations of speech and writing when communicating in various situations for specific audiences and purposes.

Indicator

  • 3.1.2 The student will describe how intonation, pitch, volume, pause, and rate all influence meaning.

Indicator

  • 3.1.3 The student will determine grammatical classification of words by using meaning, position, form, and function.

Assessment limits:
  • Using the position and form to determine the function or classification of words and phrases
    • subjects and objects: noun, pronoun, gerund, infinitive, appositive, simple, compound
    • predicates: verb, verb phrase, simple, compound
    • modifiers: adjective (including pronouns used as adjectives), adverb, prepositional phrase, participle, infinitive, article
    • conjunctions: coordinating, subordinating, correlative, and conjunctive adverbs

Indicator

  • 3.1.4 The student will differentiate grammatically complete sentences from non-sentences.

Assessment limits:
  • Identifying sentence fragments
  • Identifying run-on sentences, including fused sentences and comma splices
  • Completing inappropriate sentence fragments

Indicator

  • 3.1.5 The student will incorporate subjects, predicates, and modifiers when composing original sentences.

Indicator

  • 3.1.6 The student will compound various sentence elements—subjects, predicates, modifiers, phrases, and clauses—to link or contrast related ideas.

Assessment limits:
  • Combining sentences through the use of
    • logical coordination
    • logical and effective subordination
    • logical sequencing of ideas

Indicator

  • 3.1.7 The student will vary sentence types—simple, compound, complex, and compound/complex—to sustain reader or listener interest.

Indicator

  • 3.1.8 The student will expand sentences by positioning phrases and clauses to accomplish a purpose.

Assessment limits:
  • Expanding sentences by using correctly placed modifiers, including appositives, verbals, dependent clauses, and restrictive or nonrestrictive clauses

Indicator

  • 3.1.9 The student will recognize, combine, and transform basic sentence patterns to vary sentence structure, to emphasize selected ideas, and to achieve syntactic maturity.

Expectation 3.2

The student will identify how language choices in writing and speaking affect thoughts and feelings.

Indicator

  • 3.2.1 The student will choose a level of language, formal to informal, appropriate for a specific audience, situation, or purpose.

Indicator

  • 3.2.2 The student will differentiate connotative from denotative meanings of words.

Assessment limits:
  • Determining implied meaning(s) or image(s) associated with a particular word or phrase
    • Will not focus on the meaning of above-grade-level words

Indicator

  • 3.2.3 The student will describe how readers or listeners might respond differently to the same words.

Indicator

  • 3.2.4 The student will describe regional and social language differences.

Indicator

  • 3.2.5 The student will describe the impact of regional and social variations of language on listener or reader response.

Expectation 3.3

The student will use capitalization, punctuation, and correct spelling appropriately.

Indicator

  • 3.3.1 The student will edit texts for spelling, capitalization, and punctuation.

Assessment limits:
  • Using internalized knowledge to identify and correct errors
    • spelling of commonly confused words
    • end punctuation
    • commas: in a series, after introductory elements, setting off appositives and parenthetical statements, in dates and places, before coordinating conjunctions in compound sentences
    • semicolons between closely-related main clauses
    • semicolon and comma in compound sentence with a conjunctive adverb
    • apostrophes
    • capitalization: proper nouns, proper adjectives, geographic places, businesses, organizations and institutions

Indicator

  • 3.3.2 The student will use available resources to correct or confirm revisions and/or editorial choices.

Assessment limits:
  • Using a resource for all punctuation or capitalization skills not internalized or for rules that may be in flux
  • Using a resource for standard English usage
    • agreement of subject and verb
    • agreement of pronoun and antecedent
    • clear pronoun reference
    • appropriate case of nouns and pronouns
    • appropriate and consistent verb tenses
  • Using a resource to apply other common rules of language usage that are grade appropriate
  • Using a resource for standard English in place of nonstandard English and slang

Goal 4 Evaluating the Content, Organization, and Language Use of Texts

The student will demonstrate the ability to evaluate the content, organization, and language use of texts.

Expectation 4.1

The student will describe the effect that a given text, heard or read, has on a listener or reader.

Indicator

  • 4.1.1 The student will state and explain a personal response to a given text.

Assessment limits:
  • Explaining the effectiveness of text(s) in accomplishing a purpose
  • Explaining connections within or between texts
  • Selecting and explaining appropriate textual evidence that supports a personal response
    • specific words and phrases
    • details
    • scenes
    • images
    • symbols

Expectation 4.2

The student will assess the effectiveness of choice of details, organizational pattern, word choice, syntax, use of figurative language, and rhetorical devices.

Indicator

  • 4.2.1 The student will assess the effectiveness of diction that reveals an author’s purpose.

Assessment limits:
  • Evaluating author's choice of words, phrases, sentences, and word order
    • for a particular audience or effect
    • for a given purpose
    • to extend meaning in a context
    • to provide emphasis

Indicator

  • 4.2.2 The student will explain how the specific language and expression used by the writer or speaker affects reader or listener response.

Indicator

  • 4.2.3 The student will evaluate the use of transitions and their effectiveness in a text.

Indicator

  • 4.2.4 The student will explain how repetitions of words, phrases, structural features, and ideas affect the meaning and/or tone of a text.

Expectation 4.3

The student will evaluate textual changes in a work and explain how these changes alter tone, clarify meaning, address a particular audience, or fulfill a purpose.

Indicator

  • 4.3.1 The student will alter the tone of a text by revising its diction.

Assessment limits:
  • Selecting appropriate revisions of words and phrases
    • tone (e.g., humorous, urgent, official, authoritative, more or less critical, commanding, diplomatic, detached, resentful, sympathetic, formal, informal)
    • purpose (inform, persuade, express personal ideas)
    • audience (e.g., peer, adult, child, official authority)

Indicator

  • 4.3.2 The student will justify revisions in syntax and diction from a previous draft of a text by explaining how the change affects meaning.

Indicator

  • 4.3.3 The student will alter a text to present the same content to a different audience via the same or different media.

Indicator

  • 4.3.4 The student will compare the differences in effect of two texts on a given subject.